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Men of all ages experience erectile performance issues, a lack of libido, and infertility for an assortment of reasons. Prescription drugs offer one well-trod avenue of assistance, but men who are wary of pharmaceuticals or those who don’t think their problem is that bad yet seek another option.1 VigRX Plus aims to offer a supplement as an alternative to prescription medication for men to improve not only their erections but their overall sexual health, as well.
It’s possible that VigRX Plus may help some men with specific forms of sexual dysfunction, especially those with benign prostatic hyperplasia or other prostate issues that contribute to their problems in the bedroom. Unlike many rivals, VigRX put its formula to the test in a clinical study, which is impressive but not without caveats. For one thing, that study used a higher dose of the VigRX formula than what’s recommended to consumers. And compared to outside research, too many of its ingredients appear in significantly suboptimal doses for us to conclude it will be effective for most men. Visit our guide to male enhancement pills to learn about options we’d sooner recommend.
This research into VigRX Plus is just one piece of our massive undertaking to study the breadth of the men’s sexual health marketplace; we rigorously analyze men’s health supplements, services, and devices to inform you about which ones are worth your consideration and which ones aren’t. We become customers to test that experience to the greatest possible extent. We interview other customers and experts in various specialties. Our team has read more than 200 scholarly articles regarding men’s sexual health and the various drugs and other ingredients companies employ to treat things like ED, low testosterone, hair loss, and more. We measure our time dedicated to this effort not in hundreds of hours but in thousands.
Additionally, like all health-related content on this website, this review of VigRX Plus was thoroughly vetted by one or more members of our Medical Review Board for accuracy. We’ll continue to monitor the landscape to determine where VigRX Plus sits and to keep this review up-to-date.
Over the past two decades, Innerbody Research has helped tens of millions of readers make more informed decisions to improve their health.
In evaluating VigRX Plus, we considered several criteria that we typically apply to any supplements in the men’s sexual health space. This approach allows us to compare a product fairly to the best of its competitors.
We put the greatest emphasis on effectiveness here, as that should outweigh just about every other consideration; if VigRX doesn’t work, why would you consume it? Safety is a close second, but if the efficacy is too low to be worthy of consideration, then safety becomes a moot point. That isn’t to understate the importance we place on potential adverse effects and contraindications, however.
Finally, we look at factors like cost and convenience. Most of the supplements in this space are similarly priced, usually falling in a range between $40 and $70 for a single month’s supply. Their business models often resemble one another’s, as well, with basic websites, bulk ordering discounts, free shipping, and some kind of money-back guarantee.
Against the rest of the field, VigRX Plus is a bit of a disappointment right now. It lacks the punch of any one standout ingredient that could boast either significant clinical backing or a high enough dose to be taken seriously. The argument from VigRX Plus would undoubtedly be that their study suggests efficacy, but there are problems with this argument, as we’ll describe below. Other competitors offer larger doses of better ingredients for less money, including companies like Performer 8, our top-rated male enhancement product.
Let’s take a closer look at each criterion to give you a better sense of how we arrived at our conclusions.
When we set out to rate a product’s effectiveness, we consider everything from available scientific research to feedback from customers. We certainly give more weight to the research, but rarely are there studies performed looking into a particular company’s formula. When that’s the case, we study the research into its constituent parts to determine its potential.
VigRX Plus is relatively uncommon among male enhancement pills in that it has a research study that looks into the effects of its specific formula.2 Parts of the study’s methodology were well-designed. It’s placebo-controlled and triple-blind, two aspects that lend credence to its findings, and participants self-reported erectile performance based on several well-regarded questionnaires. Based on the results of those questionnaires, it would be easy to assume a rating closer to 9/10 than 4/10, but there’s a little more to the study than meets the eye.
For starters, VigRX Plus’ parent company, Leading Edge Health, funded the study, which almost certainly introduces some bias. Additionally, the study only used 75 participants, a number too low to develop anything near statistical significance. And finally — and most importantly — the formulation and dosage used in the study differ from the pills as sold. Granted, the study is over a decade old and VigRX may have made some changes to the formula, but it still doesn’t provide solid findings about the current formulation.
Here’s a look at how the daily doses of the study compare to the doses you’ll receive:
|Daily dose: Study||Daily dose: VigRX as sold|
|Epimedium leaf extract||60mg||15mg|
|Asian red ginseng||400mg||100mg|
|Muira pauma bark extract||200mg||50mg|
|Catuaba bark extract||200mg||25mg|
As you can see, doses run anywhere from 2-8 times the amount delivered in the VigRX Plus that ships to your home. The individual capsules in the study were stronger than the ones sold to the public, and the daily dose was four capsules in the study compared to two as listed on the box.
Aside from all of this, we also have to consider effective doses of these ingredients as indicated by various other studies looking at their impacts on sexual performance in men. Many of those doses are even larger than what VigRX Plus used in its study, which makes it less likely that VigRX plus will be effective unless you’re willing to take twice the recommended daily serving.
Looking at the chart above, you’ll find a little good news from a safety perspective: the lower doses in the VigRX Plus formula sold to the public should reduce the potential for adverse effects. In the company’s internal study, those effects ranged from mild fever to moderate “sticky discharge” in the urine. But the total number of adverse effects was relatively low, and as we saw, some ingredients in the study appeared at four times the dose delivered to consumers.
We also have to look at studies performed on VigRX Plus’s individual ingredients to get a more comprehensive understanding of the product’s safety profile, especially since the VigRX-funded study involved only 75 people. For example, a review3 of ginseng’s potential adverse effects conducted in 2002 revealed potential contraindications with warfarin4 and phenelzine.5
One of the few ingredients to appear close to a clinically relevant dose in VigRX Plus is Ginkgo biloba. Studies looking at ginkgo’s potential for memory enhancement are probably the most well known and typically use between 80 and 120mg per day. On the men’s sexual health side, one prominent study that found success using ginkgo to treat men with antidepressant-induced erectile dysfunction employed an average daily dose of 209mg.6 Side effects associated with that dose were headache, gastrointestinal issues, and general central nervous system activation. Still, at 100mg, VigRX Plus’s dose should be well-tolerated.
We want to give VigRX Plus credit for revealing the specific doses in its formula; many brands — even some that are made by the same parent company — obscure their dosages within proprietary blends. Ultimately, we have reason to believe VigRX Plus is one of the safer male enhancement products around, though others still can boast superior safety profiles.
We look at cost from multiple angles, not just standard pricing. We take things into account like bulk or subscription savings opportunities, return policies, money-back guarantees, and shipping costs. VigRX doesn’t offer subscriptions, so it relies instead on bulk savings. You also get a relatively middling money-back guarantee as compared to some of its competitors.
Given the low doses of many ingredients found in VigRX Plus, you might expect it to be less expensive than those competitors. This is not the case. VigRX Plus is among the most expensive male enhancement pills in its class. One box will cost you $70, and that will last you a month. So it’s a good thing that VigRX provides bulk purchasing discounts, which can bring your cost per month down to about $42. Still, some of VigRX Plus’ competitors offer better prices for single-month orders and similar bulk purchasing discounts.
Here’s a quick look at how VigRX Plus prices compare to its top competitors:
|Cost per month||Cost per month with a three-month supply||Cost per month at highest bulk level|
Just below VigRX Plus in our chart is Performer 8, which currently ranks as our top-rated male enhancement pill. At every level, it has a better price than VigRX Plus. It also has a superior money-back guarantee, offering a lifetime promise compared to VigRX’s 67 days.
Special Offer: Take 35% OFF a 1-month supply using code INNERBODY35
Convenience can come from several aspects of a company’s offering. For a product like VigRX Plus, we look at things like website design and ease of ordering, as well as customer support, shipping logistics, and dosing schedule.
Photo by Innerbody Research
The first big knock on VigRX comes from its lack of subscription service. While some people might not like being billed automatically, there is something to be said for not having to think about how low you might be running on a given pill. With VigRX Plus, you have to keep track of your stock and order more in time to avoid going several days without taking it. And without the opportunity for subscription discounts, that leads us to another inconvenient point: bulk purchasing.
It’s nice to be able to save money by buying in bulk, but having to store a year’s worth of anything — even something relatively small like boxes of VigRX Plus — can be a pain. Ordering is easy enough, as just about every aspect of the company’s website drives you toward the ordering page. We just wish the company offered the convenience of a subscription. To be fair, the typical VigRX competitor sets up the same kind of bulk purchasing, non-subscription platform, but a few options out there make automatic shipments possible.
Manufactured, marketed, and sold by Leading Edge Health, VigRX Plus is a nutritional supplement that claims to improve various aspects of men’s sexual health, including:
It isn't as fast-acting as some of the prescription drugs available on the market that can increase testosterone or treat erectile dysfunction, and its ultimate effects pale in comparison to these pharmaceutical advances. And with practical barriers to entry for prescription sexual health medications vanishing in the age of telemedicine, these medications are less expensive and more accessible than ever.
Still, not all men want to start their journey with a prescription. You may be wary of potential side effects from what seems like more intense treatment. There may also be some concerns about sexual dysfunctions ending up in health records. Whatever the reason, there are still plenty of men who prefer to seek treatment with nutritional supplements before heading to the pharmacy.
But from an efficacy standpoint, it’s very likely that no nutritional supplement will work as well as the available prescription drugs for men’s sexual dysfunction. A quick look at VigRX’s ingredient list reveals a product that has relatively low doses for all of its included ingredients. The company’s argument would be that the smaller doses work in concert with one another to create an overall effect that’s greater than the sum of its parts. We’re a little skeptical of that approach, especially in the face of minimal clinical evidence supporting this specific combination. And the fact that the VigRX study used a higher dose than what comes in the box only compounds our skepticism.
Here’s a quick look at VigRX Plus’ ingredients. We’ll dive deeper into each one a little further down the page:
One potential cause for performance issues is low testosterone, which is why VigRX includes some ingredients designed to boost testosterone levels. If you want to find out whether you have low T, at-home testing has expanded to include reputable companies that deliver accurate results. Our comprehensive guide to at-home testosterone tests breaks down your options and provides you with exclusive discount codes.
It’s hard for us to say that VigRX will work for most men or that it will provide no positive effect. There just isn’t enough clinical evidence in humans that these ingredients at these doses will make a meaningful difference in men’s sexual health. That said, if your issues in the bedroom stem from multiple sources, you might be able to use VigRX Plus as part of a multi-pronged approach to addressing the problem.
Common underlying causes for sexual dysfunction include:
VigRX Plus won’t serve as a complete remedy for any of those issues, but combined with improved diet and exercise, talk therapy, and other lifestyle changes, it could function as a supplemental aid. (Just keep in mind, as far as supplemental aids go, this one is more expensive than others you could consider.)
In 2010 VigRX’s parent company commissioned a clinical study on 75 men between the ages of 25 and 50.2 The study relied on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) standards as a measure of success. That questionnaire covers overall erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. The study employed other questionnaires in conjunction with this one to help round out the survey data; those included the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory and Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS). Researchers examined semen parameters and measured serum testosterone, as well.
One group of men took an enhanced dose of the supplement for 84 days (twice the recommended dose of two capsules a day for a total of four capsules), while another group took a placebo. As a triple-blind, placebo-controlled study, the participants, the experimenters overseeing the study, and the researchers analyzing the data were all ignorant of who took what.
All men in the study were heterosexual, in monogamous relationships, and reported mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction but were otherwise healthy. None of the subjects had any known underlying condition that would adversely affect their sexual health.
The study showed VigRX to be relatively safe, with incidents of side effects no higher in the VigRX group than in the placebo group. This is noteworthy because, as described above, the men in the test group received higher doses of many VigRX Plus ingredients, as compared to consumers today. Men in both groups experienced fever, but two men in the VigRX group reported a sticky discharge accompanying their urine by day 84. A correlation between this effect and VigRX was not established.
According to the study results, the VigRX group experienced:
Overall erectile function improved by 56%. 90% of the participants wanted to continue with treatment after the study.
These look like pretty promising results, but there are major caveats to the study. One red flag is that Leading Edge Health, the company that makes VigRX, funded the study. There’s a clear statement of ethics at the top, and the triple-blind design should have shielded the study from too much bias. Perhaps more importantly, the study also used a population that was too small to draw any statistically significant conclusions.
But the biggest problem with the study is the difference in the doses provided to participants and the doses sold to the general public. Study participants received between two and eight times the dose strength of what you see on the back of the box. That doesn’t quite bring the doses of individual components in line with what researchers use when studying them in isolation, but the combination of those higher doses would have a greater chance of efficacy than the dose levels in VigRX Plus.
Photo by Innerbody Research
Unlike a few other sexual-performance-enhancing supplements, VigRX Plus doesn’t conceal its ingredients within a proprietary blend. This is a level of transparency that many other products fail to provide. Unfortunately for the company, that also makes it clear how underdosed the majority of its ingredients are. To better understand how its ingredients perform in individual studies (and what doses clinicians prefer to use), let’s take a look at each ingredient individually.
Commonly called "horny goat weed," the extract is used in a myriad of male sexual enhancement supplements. It contains a compound called icariin, a flavonoid that studies show improves erections by helping relax the muscles of the corpus cavernosum.7 In this way, it acts similarly, albeit less intensely, as prescription PDE-5 inhibitors like Viagra or Cialis. Many of these studies were conducted in rats, so more human trials are needed to determine its true potential.
Several small-scale studies have looked at ginseng’s potential to treat sexual dysfunction in both men and women, most of which had positive results. One study of 60 men saw positive results in erectile performance after 12 weeks of use, but that was with a dose of 1,000mg.8 Another similar study of 45 patients taking a 900mg dose saw increased performance in a span of eight weeks.28 VigRX Plus uses a dose of just 100mg, which doesn’t bode well for its ability to make a major difference.
The only research into muira puama’s potential to improve sexual performance takes place using it in combination with other ingredients. One study illustrated its ability to up-regulate c-GMP (the substance that essentially primes the penis for an erection) in combination with ginger, L-citrulline, and Paullinia cupana.9 Obviously, muira puama exists in a combination of ingredients in VigRX Plus, but the nature of these studies and the lack of research into its standalone capabilities make it difficult to ascertain what effect the ingredient itself has on men.
At least one study has examined Ginkgo biloba’s ability to improve sexual parameters in patients with SSRI-induced erectile dysfunction.10 Studies often use between 50mg and 250mg of ginkgo, making this one of the few ingredients that appears at a clinically significant dose in VigRX Plus, which contains 100mg per serving.
Hawthorne berry has mostly been studied for its effects on heart patients and those with hypertension. A review of studies shows that it lowers blood pressure, acting as a vasodilator that could, in theory, help blood flow to the penis more freely.11 But that same study points out that, like muira puama, much of the research into hawthorne’s efficacy studied it in combination with other ingredients.
One of this ingredient’s constituent parts appeared in the above study referencing muira puama. It also boasts a few studies in isolation, but mostly in animals, making it hard to draw firm conclusions about its potential role in human sexual health.12 At 25mg, it’s also one of the smallest doses of any ingredient in VigRX Plus, and the company’s own study utilized a 200mg dose — eight times the potency.
Saw palmetto is a popular substance in men’s health, particularly as a non-prescription treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and other prostate disorders.13 Other studies have gone further, verifying the extract’s potential to fight erectile dysfunction, reduce inflammation in urological disorders, and even stop hair loss.14 General doses in studies have ranged from 100mg-500mg. VigRX is on the low end here, providing just 100mg of saw palmetto.
The bulk of the research looking at cuscuta’s potential to help with sexual performance has been conducted in rabbits, making a clear indication of efficacy or a reliable dosing recommendation elusive.15 A review of research up to 2014 makes a point of the extract’s antioxidant properties.16 While that doesn’t have a huge bearing on sexual performance, there is a connection between known antioxidants and an improvement in semen parameters.17 This ingredient might help bolster fertility, but a lot more research is needed.
Tribulus terrestris has been shown in some research to have benefits for erectile performance,18 but more research points to its testosterone-boosting effects.19 If you have low testosterone levels, it might provide you with benefits from increased energy and libido to improved fertility and erectile performance. Study doses ranged from 250mg to 800mg on average, though, making VigRX’s 150mg dose a little underwhelming.
Quite simply, this is black pepper extract. It’s in VigRX Plus and a wide variety of supplements thanks to its ability to increase nutrient absorption. It’s effective in studies at as little as 5mg, which makes it VigRX Plus’ most overdosed ingredient at 10mg.
Safety is one of VigRX Plus’ strong points, particularly for men who are otherwise healthy. Most male enhancement pills seek to improve blood flow to the penis and often achieve this by vasodilation, a widening of the blood vessels. This is akin to what a prescription PDE-5 inhibitor like Viagra can do, albeit at a lower intensity.
While that’s generally good news from an efficacy standpoint, mimicking PDE-5 inhibitors exposes users to many of the same risks. The most dangerous of these involves a potential drop in blood pressure resulting from the widening of blood vessels. It’s why any consultation for a PDE-5 prescription requires a blood pressure measurement. Men with blood pressure or other cardiovascular issues and those taking prescriptions like warfarin could put their lives at risk by taking PDE-5 inhibitors and may endure similar hazards using male enhancement pills, especially VigRX Plus.
However, most of VigRX’s doses are on the low side compared to those used in clinical studies. And the only data we have concerning the safety profile of VigRX’s specific ingredients and doses working in concert comes from the company’s self-funded study, which was small.
There are several side effects in addition to blood pressure issues you should watch out for when you start using VigRX, based on data from studies of its individual ingredients. They include:
You should talk to your doctor before introducing VigRX Plus into your diet, and definitely give them a call if any of these symptoms or anything else concerning occurs after you start taking it.
VigRX typically runs a promotion that keeps its prices at or around the numbers we provided in an earlier chart. Technically, its retail prices are a little over 20% higher, though you usually won’t pay those. Still, Leading Edge Health has provided us with discount codes our readers can use if they’re interested in trying VigRX Plus. These codes apply a percentage discount to the retail price at every purchasing level. That consistently brings your cost down lower than you’d pay, even with VigRX Plus’s promotions.
Here’s how it breaks down:
VigRX used to offer a 12-month supply, as well, but the company has since limited its options to what you see here.
For one reason or another, these codes only seem to work when you click through them. If you input them manually on the VigRX website, they might not take.
Because of the 67-day money-back guarantee if you're dissatisfied, it makes sense to order larger quantities if you can afford them. That keeps your cost as low as possible if you experience results, though it does require a larger investment up-front.
But when many of the ingredients included in VigRX Plus and other male enhancement pills work in studies, they do so after a period of about 8-12 weeks. That 67-day period might not be long enough for you to notice those results. Other companies offer longer guarantees, like Ultraload’s 100-day guarantee or the lifetime coverage you get from Performer 8 (our top male enhancement pill).
We’d prefer it if the site had a more prominent button for a “do not sell my information” request. You actually have to call a company rep to opt out, which is more than most people are willing to do. Other companies have simpler systems with a “do not sell my information” button somewhere at the bottom of almost every page. One or two even let you opt out with one click — no phone call or email required.
VigRX ships its product in plain brown packaging with no company branding in sight. The return address on the shipping label will refer only to a “shipping manager” or similar term — not VigRX or Leading Edge Health — so no one could ascertain what’s in the box just by looking at the outside. This is pretty standard practice for most supplements in this space, but we appreciate it nonetheless.
Men struggling in the bedroom have a lot of ways to tackle the problem. Some of them can even work together to increase the odds that you can return to full function in short order. VigRX Plus is rarely where men should start, both because it’s ultimately less effective than prescription options and because it’s neither the cheapest male enhancement pill nor the one likeliest to make a positive difference.
In order to give you a complete view of your options, we’ll need to look at several product categories and treatment approaches in a little more depth.
There may have been a time a couple of decades ago when it would make sense for men to consider supplemental treatment before reaching for prescription interventions. But as sildenafil (Viagra’s active ingredient) and tadalafil (Cialis’s active ingredient) have undergone year after year of testing and public use, it’s clear that they represent a safe and effective means to treat erectile dysfunction.
To be clear, these pills aren’t a silver bullet for all sexual dysfunctions. They can’t address issues with libido, premature ejaculation, and infertility. But if your main problem in the bedroom is sustaining an erection of sufficient strength to enjoy penetrative sex, then they’re probably your best bet.
Prescription erectile dysfunction medication has also become a lot easier to obtain in the age of telehealth. There are several reputable companies that can provide you with a doctor’s consultation, the prescription itself, and even medication delivery for extremely low costs. And since you only need to take most ED medications shortly before intercourse — as opposed to a daily supplement — the generic pills end up costing most men a lot less money.
We have a comprehensive guide that goes over everything you need to know to get a prescription online, but here are a few highlights:
VigRX Plus belongs to a category of supplements often referred to as male enhancement pills. These are nutritional supplements that aim to improve men’s sex lives by doing the following:
That’s a lot of potential benefit from what are often mixtures of poorly studied botanical ingredients and a few vitamins and minerals. But anecdotal evidence suggests some degree of efficacy, which spurred on the examination of the male enhancement landscape you can find in our complete guide.
VigRX has a lot of competition, and it doesn’t rise to the top of any of our rankings. It’s routinely surpassed by offerings that are less expensive, contain more or better ingredients, or both. Our top-rated male enhancement pill is Performer 8. It costs less than VigRX Plus ($65 for one month, $195 for five months) and contains some of the same ingredients as VigRX Plus but in much higher doses. It also contains ashwagandha, which we like seeing thanks to its testosterone-boosting21 abilities and its anxiolytic and adaptogenic effects.22
Testosterone boosters are a subset of male enhancement pills that focus on elevating testosterone levels rather than improving blood flow to the penis. They’re particularly useful for men whose testosterone levels are lower than normal, which grows more likely after age 40 when those levels typically drop at a rate of 1-2% per year.29 There’s a lot of ingredient crossover between them and traditional male enhancement pills, but some of the ingredients you regularly see in testosterone boosters that are rarer among male enhancement pills include:
This can be a finicky ingredient, and dosing plays a big role in its efficacy. There are studies that illustrate D-aspartic acid’s ability to increase luteinizing hormone production, which, in turn, creates more testosterone.23 But other studies show that this ability drops off and even creates a net negative testosterone at especially high doses (6g and up).24
Ashwagandha has been shown to boost testosterone and reduce anxiety. There is also increasing evidence that it can help improve semen parameters.25 It often appears at clinically relevant doses, as well.
Testosterone needs to be free for your body to use it in sexual health, muscle maintenance, and more. But it often gets bound up by something called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Zinc has been shown to reduce this binding and allow more of the testosterone your body produces to move freely through your system.26 That said, men with healthy dietary zinc levels may not see a huge difference from supplementation.
Men deficient in vitamin D are often also found to have low testosterone, and vice versa.27 Deficiency is also relatively common, making this one of the likelier ingredients to succeed in testosterone boosters.
Because various underlying conditions can impact erectile performance and libido, there are a lot of things you can do in your daily life that can improve your sexual health. We recommend you investigate them in conjunction with supplemental or prescription therapies to maximize the odds you’ll return to your old form sooner rather than later.
Common lifestyle changes that can improve sexual health include:
Of course, this is just a preliminary list. You should talk to your doctor about your goals and perhaps order some tests that can determine potential nutritional deficiencies or low testosterone. Together, you can make a plan to get you back on track.
Innerbody uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
Mulhall, J. P., Luo, X., Zou, K. H., Stecher, V., & Galaznik, A. (2016). Relationship between age and erectile dysfunction diagnosis or treatment using real-world observational data in the United States. International journal of clinical practice, 70(12), 1012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540144/
Shah, G., Shimpi, R.K., Patankar, S., Chaudhari, M., & Sabale, V. (2010, May 8). A Clinical Study Report VigRX Plus in Male Sexual Health. Leading Edge Marketing. https://www.vigrxplus.com/wp-content/themes/lehcart/pdf/vigrxplus-csr-v1.2.pdf
Coon, J. T., & Ernst, E. (2002). Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug safety, 25(5), 323–344. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12020172/
Janetzky, K. and Morreale, A.P. (1997). Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng. American journal of health-system pharmacy, 54:692-3. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anthony-Morreale/publication/14137072_Probable_interaction_between_warfarin_and_Ginseng/links/02e7e53c01f6bd845b000000/Probable-interaction-between-warfarin-and-Ginseng.pdf
Jones, B. D. and Runikis, A. M. (1987, June). Interaction of Ginseng with Phenelzine. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 7(3):p 201. https://journals.lww.com/psychopharmacology/Citation/1987/06000/Interaction_of_Ginseng_with_Phenelzine.30.aspx
Cohen, A. J., & Bartlik, B. (1998). Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Journal of sex & marital therapy, 24(2), 139–143. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9611693/
Xin, Z., Euikyung, K., Tian, Z. et al. Icariin on relaxation effect of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Chin.Sci.Bull. 46, 1186–1190 (2001). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/bf02900599
de Andrade, E., de Mesquita, A. A., Claro, J.deA., de Andrade, P. M., Ortiz, V., Paranhos, M., & Srougi, M. (2007). Study of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Asian journal of andrology, 9(2), 241–244. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16855773/
Ferrini, M. G., Abraham, A., Graciano, L., Nguyen, S., Mills, J. N., & Rajfer, J. (2021). Activation of the iNOS/NO/cGMP pathway by Revactin® in human corporal smooth muscle cells. Translational Andrology and Urology, 10(7), 2889-2898. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350259/
Kang, B. J., Lee, S. J., Kim, M. D., & Cho, M. J. (2002). A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Human psychopharmacology, 17(6), 279–284. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12404672/
Cloud, A., Vilcins, D., & McEwen, B. (2020). The effect of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) on blood pressure: A systematic review. Advances in Integrative Medicine, 7(3), 167-175. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2212958817301106
Antunes, E., Gordo, W. M., de Oliveira, J. F., Teixeira, C. E., Hyslop, S., & De Nucci, G. (2001). The relaxation of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum by the herbal medicine Catuama and its constituents. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 15(5), 416–421. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11507734/
Kwon, Y. (2019). Use of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extract for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Food Science and Biotechnology, 28(6), 1599-1606. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859144/
Liu, M., Yin, H., Wang, F., & Tian, Y. (2021). The Therapeutic Potential of Saw Palmetto Extract in Urological Disorders. Natural Product Communications. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1934578X211059635
Sun, K., Zhao, C., Chen, F., Kim, K., Choi, R., Huang, R., & Park, K. (2013). Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum. Asian Journal of Andrology, 15(1), 134-137. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3739115/
Donnapee, S., Li, J., Yang, X., Ge, A., Donkor, P. O., Gao, X., & Chang, Y. (2014). Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 157, 292-308. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378874114006874
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