Photo by Innerbody Research
As men age, it’s natural for them to experience some decline in sexual vigor.1 Whether this manifests as a lower libido, reduced erectile strength, or diminished semen volume and orgasm activity, it’s not something any man wants to confront. But these symptoms are more common than you might think, and there’s no shame in any of them. Some nutritional supplements claim the ability to remedy the situation, including Semenax, a branded combination of botanicals, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids sold by Leading Edge Health. We took a close look at Semenax’s ingredients and customer experience to help you understand its potential value.
Semenax is better than most volume pill products and combines more ingredients than almost any other supplement in its class, but ultimately the benefits for you are unpredictable. Many of its ingredients have some research behind them to suggest efficacy, but most appear in substandard doses compared to quantities used in studies, and some simply lack scientific backing. A company-sponsored double-blind, placebo-controlled study showed positive results — which is more than most volume pill companies can say — but it was a small study. There certainly are men for whom Semenax will improve ejaculate volume and orgasm intensity. Men looking to improve semen parameters in the hopes of conceiving a child should probably look elsewhere; consult our full guide to volume pills and male fertility supplements to explore potentially better alternatives depending on your goals.
Over the past two decades, Innerbody Research has helped tens of millions of readers make more informed decisions about their health. For this review of Semenax, we utilized a vast collection of scholarly research delving into Semenax’s individual ingredients, as well as the various functions and possible dysfunctions of male sexual health. All told, our team read over 200 articles on relevant topics and spent more than 100 hours comparing Semenax’s potential with that of its closest competitors.
Additionally, like all health-related content on this website, this review was thoroughly vetted by one or more members of our Medical Review Board for accuracy. As time goes by, we’ll continue to monitor Semenax and the broader men’s health landscape to keep this content up-to-date.
To evaluate Semenax, we looked at a handful of key factors central to its potential as a wise investment. We consider these criteria both in isolation and with respect to Semenax’s wide array of competitors.
We start with — and put the most weight on — effectiveness. If the product is never going to work, there isn't much reason to pay attention to any other criteria. But if you are going to take Semenax or any other male enhancement product, you’ll want to know that it’s safe, which is why we consider safety second, just behind efficacy.
Cost matters a little less with Semenax than it would with other products because, as you’ll see, its price point is about on par with what you’ll see among men’s sexual wellness supplements. But it still matters, especially with a product you assumed would take for as long as you wanted to be sexually active, as even minor savings could add up over many years.
Considered together, these criteria paint the picture of a product that has a better chance to provide results than most of its competitors. That said, many of its competitors — and the volume pills category as a whole — have a low ceiling of potential. Semenax is near the top of a list of what are too often mediocre supplements.
We’ve cataloged just about every major research paper looking into the potential sexual benefits of these ingredients and compared the successful doses to the dose provided in Semenax.
In almost every case, Semenax uses doses that, for individual ingredient studies, would be insufficient. But very few of those studies look at Semenax’s ingredients in combination with one another. This isn’t a problem exclusive to Semenax; the running theory among male enhancement supplement manufacturers is that lower doses of multiple ingredients can combine to perform greater than the sum of their parts. It certainly sounds reasonable, and it very well may be the case for many men, but with so few of those supplements undergoing trials of their own, it’s hard to say if it’s true.
Here’s a quick look at how some of the most generously dosed parts of Semenax’s ingredient profile compare to its closest competitors:
|Semenax||Performer 8||Max Performer||VigRX Plus|
|Maca||400mg (root)||30mg (extract)||1,000mg||N/A|
|Epimedium saggitatum||150mg (leaf)||1,000mg (leaf)||1,000mg (leaf)||30mg (extract)|
|Pine bark extract||300mg||300mg||N/A||N/A|
Leading Edge Health, Semenax’s parent company, has arranged for double-blind, placebo-controlled studies for several of its products, including Semenax. This is rare in the niche and distinguishes Semenax from competitors.
If you take Semenax’s word for it, that study “proved” Semenax’s efficacy. Setting aside the rare cases in which scientists would claim anything to be undoubtedly proven, the study had undeniably positive results, and Leading Edge Health appears to be the only manufacturer willing to put its products to that kind of test. Still, the fact that Leading Edge Health funded the study is hard to ignore. That kind of direct funding often produces some bias. For one thing, there’s no telling how many studies a company funds and discards before it gets one with favorable results.
There are a few competitors who rise above this problem by providing large doses of one or two “hero” ingredients around which their supplements are built. Performer 8 is a good example of a supplement that we regard highly for its inclusion of clinically significant ashwagandha, epimedium leaf, and ginseng doses (compare Semenax’s 150mg epimedium dose to Performer 8’s 1,000mg).
The one good thing about using smaller ingredient doses is that it reduces the risk of side effects. That’s not to say Semenax is going to go down easy for everybody, though. The study that claimed to prove Semenax’s efficacy is also the source of the company’s “no reported side effects” claim. And this statement is simply not true. The study included 11 adverse effects reported from the Semenax group and four from the placebo group. Researchers believed that the following effects reported by the Semenax group were connected to the supplement:
Studies looking at individual ingredients like Tribulus terrestris and epimedium leaf show mostly mild risks of similar gastrointestinal reactions and headache, but there are underlying health conditions that could make Semenax particularly dangerous for some men. For example, men with heart conditions may make poor candidates for Semenax due to some of its ingredients’ purported ability to improve blood flow. That would also lower blood pressure and could pose a danger to men on drugs like warfarin or those with other cardiovascular issues.
Still, you likely won’t find a much better safety profile in many other male enhancement supplements; most of them seek to improve erectile performance, and increased blood flow is one well-known way to achieve this. Semenax’s product category as a whole presents a wide range of potential adverse reactions. Considering these potential risks, it’s important that you speak with your doctor before introducing Semenax into your regimen. This, by the way, is true with any new supplement you want to take.
Comparing the cost of one male enhancement supplement to another involves more than just the sticker price. We also take into account shipping costs, opportunities for bulk or subscription savings, and even money-back guarantees and return policies. Most male enhancement producers eschew the subscription model in favor of bulk savings, and Semenax is no different.
Semenax’s price point generally falls right in the middle of the landscape as well. Take a quick look at the costs of one-month supplies for each of the top male enhancement pills, as well as the cost per month you’d pay if you bought their highest bulk amounts, which range from 6-12 months’ worth:
|Cost per month||Cost per month at highest bulk level||Money-back guarantee|
|VigRX Plus||$69.65||$49.16||67 days|
|Max Performer||$69||$30||100 days|
|Volume Pills||$59.95||$33.33||67 days|
|Male Extra||$59.99||$30||100 days|
Special Offer: Take 35% off using promo code INNERBODY35
As you can see, while Semenax’s one-month supply cost is about average, the cost for a 12-month supply is one of the lowest. There’s another way to bring that cost down a little further, thanks to coupon codes Leading Edge Health offers for our readers. If you think Semenax might be a solution for you, you can use them like this:
Those savings would bring the monthly cost of a 12-month supply down to $32/month, which allows Semenax to score above other products in its category. You’ll want to balance any of those savings against ingredients and doses provided by other products at slightly higher prices to make sure you’re getting something with the best chance of working, but if budget is a big concern, Semenax is a decent option.
Convenience in your supplement regimen can come from several places. It starts with access to the supplements themselves through intuitive website design and a simple, effective ordering process. Our experience with Semenax’s site and ordering process were on par with just about every male enhancement supplement out there, though the exact quantities of the product’s ingredients are harder to find on the site than they are with some competitors.
Shipping logistics can be another source of convenience, and Semenax performs well enough here. Our Semenax shipments typically arrived within about a week of placing the order, which isn’t bad for a free shipping service and is about the same as you’ll find from most other male enhancement brands.
We also look at the dosing schedule and pill size when considering a supplement’s convenience. At four pills per dose, taking Semenax can be a challenge for anyone with difficulty swallowing pills. Fortunately, the schedule has you doing this just once daily.
A final noteworthy knock on Semenax’s convenience is the company’s lack of a subscription model. To be fair, this is true of just about every male enhancement product on the market, but it bothers us nonetheless. In addition to offering more savings potential, a subscription allows you to take a supplement continuously without worrying that you’ll run out having forgotten to reorder and go several days without it.
Semenax is a male enhancement pill that aims to increase semen volume above all else, with improvements in erectile performance and orgasm intensity as ancillary goals. That puts it in a subcategory of male enhancement products known as volume pills. It’s produced by Leading edge Health, a manufacturer with several male enhancement products on the market that combine different sets of ingredients to target specific men’s sexual health needs.
The idea behind Semenax is that men might see a decrease in semen volume over the course of their lives, often due to nutritional deficiencies. Certain ingredients in Semenax might be able to close the gap in some deficiencies (specifically zinc deficiency, which is prevalent globally), but men who eat healthily, exercise regularly, and have no underlying conditions might not see much change in their sex lives with Semenax.3
Semenax also isn’t going to compare in efficacy with prescription PDE-5 inhibitors like Viagra or Cialis if your primary concern is erectile performance. But Semenax’s main goal is increasing ejaculate volume, which was the one significant parameter improved in the company’s small-scale clinical study.
Compared to other volume pills, Semenax stands out for its lengthy ingredient list and dedicated research. But given that the doses of those ingredients aren’t particularly high, the length of that list isn’t enough for it to rise far above its competition. Here’s a quick look at Semenax’s ingredients and doses, and we’ll dive deeper into these in a subsequent section:
Other ingredients include:
While these other ingredients that make up the capsule and stabilize the formula are relatively common, it’s worth noting that the presence of gelatin makes Semenax unsuitable for vegans and vegetarians.
Anyone who produces less than 3ml of semen would reasonably be interested in a product like Semenax. It is a supplement that also claims to help men who have low libido, who aren't able to enjoy a firm erection, or who may be suffering from low testosterone. But there are so many potential causes for these issues; simply throwing a supplement at them because the manufacturer says so might not be sufficient. The best thing you can do is to confer with your doctor, maybe take a testosterone test, and develop a plan to address your needs. That plan could very well include a supplement like Semenax.
Semenax may work better than many of its competitors for some men, but there is no real evidence that it will work for most. Based on the ingredients it contains, it may help men with low testosterone levels work toward normalcy, and men with sexual performance issues related to blood flow issues or a vitamin E deficiency might see a small difference. But without credible research looking at how these ingredients might work together, we can’t guarantee the effectiveness of Semenax. It’s worth noting that the company provides a 67-day money-back guarantee, which offers decent protection in the event that you experience no positive results.
Semenax sponsored a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study to investigate its effectiveness.2 The results showed that a double dose of Semenax significantly boosted semen volume by just under 20%. Other results were mixed. Here’s a quick breakdown of Semenax’s trial results:
Participants in the supplement group saw a 19.7% increase in ejaculate volume after two months. Members in the placebo group actually saw a drop in ejaculate volume.
Participants in the supplement group saw an increase in sperm count by 11.7% compared to a decrease in the placebo group.
Sperm morphology — a measurement of the shape of healthy sperm — improved slightly in the supplement group and declined slightly in the placebo group. Researchers determined this difference to be statistically insignificant.
Non-progressive motility is not a good thing, as it means individual sperm aren’t moving in straight lines. This measurement increased in the supplement group.
The inverse of non-progressive motility, this measurement involves sperm that move in straight lines and are more likely to reach an egg. It declined in the supplement group.
IIEF is the International Index of Erectile Function, and both supplement and placebo groups saw an increase in its score, meaning the supplement likely had little to do with any improvement in erectile performance.
Semenax is a legitimate company. Its parent company, Leading Edge Health, provides good customer support, making it easy to reach someone if you have a question, need to return the product, or have an issue with your order. There’s a 67-day money-back guarantee if dissatisfied with Semenax, which is just enough time for some men to start noticing benefits if they’re among the subset who will see positive results. Other companies offer longer warranties, like Performer 8’s lifetime guarantee and Ulstraload’s 100 days, but 67 days is still very useful.
Semenax and its ingredients have been shown in clinical trials to be generally safe and acceptable for most men when used as directed. However, if you suffer from blood pressure issues, heart problems, or diabetes, we recommend that you get your Semenax use approved by your doctor before you start taking the supplement, just so that you're always safe.
Semenax contains horny goat weed, which can cause breathing difficulties in some people. It also may increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people on blood thinners.
If you decide to use Semenax, we recommend that you share your plans with your doctor. It’s always a good idea to communicate these details anytime you are adding a new supplement to your routine.
Semenax employs a formula containing botanical ingredients, zinc, and vitamin E in an attempt to improve ejaculate volume, orgasm intensity, fertility, and erectile performance. Many of the individual ingredients in Semenax are part of studies looking into their effectiveness in men’s sexual health, though effective doses in studies are often higher than those seen in Semenax.
To get a better sense of how Semenax envisions each ingredient working toward its goals, it’s a good idea to examine them individually. Of course, we delve into the nitty gritty on various popular volume pill ingredients in our guide to the best volume pills, so we recommend checking that out if you want to learn more and see how Semenax stacks up against other players in the field.
While one study looking at semen parameters in geese showed promise for vitamin E supplementation to improve ejaculate volume and sperm concentration,4 another study in humans saw no meaningful difference in IVF outcomes among patients taking a vitamin E supplement over twice the size of the serving in Semenax compared to those not taking it.5
This may be the one ingredient in Semenax with the most potential. A link between zinc and testosterone levels has been well established, and healthy testosterone levels lead to healthy sperm.6 In and of itself, zinc has an important role to play in fertility.7 Of course, if you already have healthy testosterone levels or take a multivitamin with a good dose of zinc in it, Semenax might not make a difference.
One in-vitro study looking at mice semen found that exposure to carnitine improved motility but not chromatin quality8 — an essential characteristic for male fertility.9 A few other studies look at carnitine’s role in healthy sperm as part of a larger complex of antioxidants, so they’re less useful to us in determining Semenax’s efficacy.
A meta-analysis of studies looking at maca for improving men’s sexual health found numerous examples of success, but the studies included typically used maca doses ranging from 1,200mh-3,500mg per day.10 That’s far more than the 400mg used in Semenax. That doesn’t mean it won’t contribute to the overall effect of the supplement, but it’s worth noting the difference.
Pine bark extract is one of the few ingredients in Semenax to appear at a quantity above what’s performed well in at least one study. Admittedly a small-scale study, it included 21 participants who saw improvements in ED score on the IIEF after three months of treatment with 120mg of a pine bark extract.11 We put it together here with L-arginine because of another study looking at Prelox, a branded combination of the two ingredients. In this study of 124 patients, researchers saw a steady increase in IIEF scores at two and three months compared to placebo.12 The only hangup is that Prelox is a proprietary blend, so we don’t know how much of each ingredient it contains.
While one study looking at lysine glutarylation reveals the amino acid’s role in healthy sperm, studies into the potential for lysine supplementation to improve semen parameters are lacking.13
The key to understanding the potential for this ingredient — also called barrenwort or horny goat weed — is checking to see whether or not a company includes it as a whole leaf or an extract. One study looking at the efficacy of icariin — the useful extract from epimedium sagittatum — found that 1mg/kg of body weight was a sufficient dose to begin seeing results in rats.16 That’s equivalent to 90mg for a 200lb man. But that’s a measure of the extract. When the leaf is involved, the actual amount of icariin you’ll get is much lower, and Semenax includes just 150mg of the leaf, not the extract.
While the other ingredients in Semenax have some scientific research suggesting efficacy in this realm, the doses Semenax uses are far lower than the doses that studies indicate would be predictably influential. Taken together, they might be sufficient to make a difference for some men — especially combined with some of the better ingredients included at higher doses. With additional research into the ingredients themselves and into the supplement as a whole, we can hopefully make a more comprehensive recommendation in the future.
Photo by Innerbody Research
As with most supplements in its class, it’s a better deal to buy larger supplies of Semenax. The company offers discounts for bulk purchases, but there’s no opportunity to subscribe for added savings or convenience.
Semenax lists retail prices for its products, but the company typically has some kind of promotion going on that reduces those prices. In our experience, these promotions are always active, and they bring the product’s prices down to an average level among its competitors. Leading Edge Health has offered us coupon codes we can provide our readers to get them an extra edge in savings compared to the company’s typical promotions. Here’s how they work:
In our testing, simply going to the Semenax site and typing these codes in doesn’t seem to activate them. Actively clicking through the links we provide here and then making a purchase is the only way to apply the added discounts.
Companies like Male Extra and Max Performer offer similar products for less, even when you take our codes into account. Which supplement stands the best chance of working for you depends a bit on the exact nature of your issues in the bedroom and any underlying causes contributing to them.
Insider Tip: We’re aware of several companies whose products have been counterfeited and sold on platforms like Amazon. These often contain substandard formulas, and some even contain potentially hazardous ingredients. The best way to avoid buying an imposter is to buy directly from the Semenax website.
Depending on what you want Semenax to do, there are several other areas of treatment you might consider first. These include similar nutritional supplements, prescription medications, and various lifestyle adjustments like improved diet and exercise or even talk therapy. We’ll take a quick look at your possible options in cases that compete with Semenax directly, and if certain avenues appeal to you, you can examine them further in our dedicated guides.
At its core, Semenax is a nutritional supplement with a formula that hopes to improve male sexual health. Other nutritional supplements have similar goals, so it might be smart to familiarize yourself with them. Here’s a look at what each of these types of supplements might be able to do for you if Semenax isn’t your go-to:
These supplements contain various ingredients with an aim toward improving blood flow to the penis. It’s also an umbrella term sometimes used to describe both volume pills and testosterone boosters. Learn more in our guide to the best male enhancement pills.
This is Semenax’s category of supplements, and they tend to include fewer ingredients related to blood flow and more related to semen quantity and quality. Our Volume Pills guide has more information for you to explore and sets up helpful comparisons between these supplements and male fertility supplements.
Low testosterone can be an underlying cause of several issues in the bedroom, including poor erectile performance, low libido, and even infertility. But they might not prove as helpful if your testosterone levels are normal. See our testosterone booster guide for more.
Fertility supplements may seem more respectable as they’re not marketed toward men with the same aggressive, macho salesmanship typical of the above product categories. But they often contain similar ingredients — especially similar to testosterone boosters and volume pills — and often in higher doses for similar prices.
If you’re looking to Semenax or another male enhancement product as a means to improve erectile performance, first and foremost, you’ll have more success with prescription treatments like Viagra or Cialis and their much more affordable generic equivalents. And while prescription medications may seem like a more extreme response to sexual issues — especially if yours are mild or infrequent — the truth is that these treatments have endured far more scientific scrutiny than many of the ingredients found in male enhancement supplements.
We’ve taken a close look at the best prescription ED medications and their available telemedicine providers in our comprehensive guide, but here are a few highlights from our findings:
Generic tadalafil (Cialis) is our preferred treatment overall, thanks to its low cost and dosage flexibility. You can take it daily and be ready for sex anytime, or you can take it as needed, and it will last in your system for up to 36 hours. We recommend men interested in generic tadalafil on an as-needed basis look to BlueChew, a company that provides its medications in convenient chewable tablets. Men interested in daily tadalafil should check out Hims.
Generic sildenafil is going to be one of the most popular options, as it’s therapeutically identical to Viagra but costs a lot less. Unlike tadalafil, sildenafil can only be taken as needed, and it doesn’t last in the system quite as long (6-8 hours). If you’ve never tried a prescription ED medication, BlueChew allows you to try sildenafil for free. Meanwhile, Hims offers sildenafil in a wider range of dose options.
There are a few other options that work in much the same way as these two drugs (most prescription ED meds are PDE-5 inhibitors).17 These are often newer and a little more precise in targeting PDE-5 and not other similar enzymes like PDE-6 or 11.18 That can reduce the risk of what are already rare side effects, but they might be better options if you experience issues with sildenafil or tadalafil.
Innerbody uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
Chung, E. (2019). Sexuality in ageing male: review of pathophysiology and treatment strategies for various male sexual dysfunctions. Medical Sciences, 7(10). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835548/
MacKay D, Verma S and Srivastava S (2022) Effect of a polyherbal dietary supplement on semen characteristics: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Nutr Diet Vol.8 No.4: 178 https://clinical-nutrition.imedpub.com/effect-of-a-polyherbal-dietary-supplement-on-semen-characteristics-a-randomized-doubleblind-placebocontrolled-clinical-trial.php
Wessells, K. R., & Brown, K. H. (2011). Estimating the global Prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting. PLoS ONE, 7(11). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510072/
Jerysz, A., & Lukaszewicz, E. (2012). Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on ganders’ response to semen collection and ejaculate characteristics. Biological Trace Element Research, 153(1), 196-204. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667365/
Sabetian, S., Jahromi, B. N., Vakili, S., Forouhari, S., & Alipour, S. (2020). The effect of oral vitamin E on semen parameters and IVF outcome: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. BioMed Research International, 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523239/
Prasad, A. S., Mantzoros, C. S., Beck, F. W., Hess, J. W., & Brewer, G. J. (1996). Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 12(5), 344–348. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8875519/
Fallah, A., Mohammad-Hasani, A., & Colagar, A. H. (2018). Zinc is an essential element for male fertility: a review of Zn roles in men’s health, germination, sperm quality, and fertilization. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility, 19(2), 69-81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010824/
Aliabadi, E., Mehranjani, M. S., Borzoei, Z., Talaei-Khozani, T., Mirkhani, H., & Tabesh, H. (2012). Effects of L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine on testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 10(2), 77-82. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163266/
Sadeghi, M. R., Hodjat, M., Lakpour, N., Arefi, S., Amirjannati, N., Modarresi, T., Jadda, H. H., & Akhondi, M. M. (2009). Effects of sperm chromatin integrity on fertilization rate and embryo quality following intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology, 1(3), 173-180. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3558139/
Shin, C., Lee, M. S., Yang, E. J., Lim, S., & Ernst, E. (2009). Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: A systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10, 44. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2928177/
D̆uračková, Z., Trebatický, B., Novotný, V., Žitňanová, I., & Breza, J. (2003). Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by pycnogenol®, extract from the bark of pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction-a pilot study. Nutrition Research, 23(9), 1189-1198. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S027153170300126X
Ledda, A., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M.R., Dugall, M. and Schönlau, F. (2010), Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU International, 106: 1030-1033. https://bjui-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09213.x
Cheng, Y. M., Hu, X. N., Peng, Z., Pan, T. T., Wang, F., Chen, H. Y., Chen, W. Q., Zhang, Y., Zeng, X. H., & Luo, T. (2019). Lysine glutarylation in human sperm is associated with progressive motility. Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 34(7), 1186–1194. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31194865/
Chang, X., Dong, M., Mi, X., Hu, M., Lu, J., & Chen, X. (2021). The protective effect of trichilia catigua A. Juss. on DEHP-induced reproductive system damage in male mice. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8853101/
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Andersson, E. (2018). PDE5 inhibitors – pharmacology and clinical applications 20 years after sildenafil discovery. British Journal of Pharmacology, 175(13), 2554-2565. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003652/
Alwaal, A., Al-Mannie, R., & Carrier, S. (2010). Future prospects in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: Focus on avanafil. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 5, 435-443. Future prospects in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: focus on avanafil - PMC
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