The Best (Instant?) Female Arousal Pills

Is there a product for instant female arousal? We did the research and testing — discover the best pill and topical options in 2024.

Last updated: Jan 2nd, 2024
Innerbody is independent and reader-supported. When you buy through links on our site, we will earn commission.   .
Best Instant Female Arousal Pills

If you’re a woman struggling with low libido or other sexual dysfunction concerns, you’re not alone. Research estimates that 1 in 10 women live with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), and other studies report that approximately 40-50% of all women experience at least one distressing sexual symptom in their lives due to the hormone changes of menopause. These symptoms vary widely from person to person and can manifest both physically and mentally.

Since these symptoms can be highly distressing and result in lowered self-esteem or relationship difficulties, you may be looking for the quickest fix possible. But with so many options on the market — a lot of which are from shady companies making impossible promises — how do you know which ones are effective and, most importantly, safe?

In this guide to the best female arousal pills and topicals, we give you all the details of our top picks, including safety, effectiveness, cost, discounts, and much more.

If you’re in a hurry, here’s a quick summary of our findings.

Our 2024 recommendations for best instant female arousal pills

  • Best over-the-counter pill: Promescent VitaFLUX
  • Best fast arousal product: Wisp OMG! Cream
  • Runner-up OTC pill: HerSolution
  • Best over-the-counter topical: Unbound Jolt Gel
  • Best prescription pill: Addyi
Best Overall

Promescent’s VitaFLUX is a non-prescription alternative that can improve libido, arousal, and natural lubrication in women.

This vegan-friendly supplement relies on magnesium, zinc, and three amino acids — all of which research suggests can boost nitric oxide production and improve many symptoms of sexual dysfunction. It’s available in capsules or as a sugar-free powder. Promescent offers our readers an exclusive $5 off at checkout when clicking any link on this page.

Table of Contents

In this Review

Why you should trust us

Over the past two decades, Innerbody Research has helped tens of millions of readers make more informed decisions about staying healthy and living healthier lifestyles.

For this review of the best female arousal products, we pored over dozens of scientific studies and articles on safe and effective ingredients, and our team thoroughly investigated the companies behind the products. Our testers also purchased these items so that we could compare them and provide detailed explanations (such as differences in pill size). As more information on new products and ingredients becomes available, we’ll update this review accordingly.

Additionally, like all health-related content on this website, this guide was thoroughly vetted for accuracy by one or more members of our Medical Review Board.

How we evaluated female arousal products

There is a wide variety of female arousal pills, gels, creams, and other products on the market. With some containing less-than-safe ingredients, it’s important to know which libido-support products for women are safe and effective. We also evaluated these products based on how burdensome (or not) the cost may be and how convenient they are to acquire and use.


Winner: VitaFLUX

Unlike the sketchy “instant female arousal pill” products on the market, our top picks overwhelmingly rely on safe ingredients.

Our choice for the best over-the-counter (OTC) pill, VitaFLUX, only uses five active ingredients: L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-carnitine tartrate, magnesium, and zinc. These amino acids and minerals should be safe for most people to take. However, there are some instances where an alternative might be better for you. For example, taking L-arginine could trigger a herpes flare-up (both HSV-1 and HSV-2), and L-carnitine may interact with certain thyroid medications. So, as always, we recommend consulting your doctor before starting a supplement to ensure it’s safe for you.

Overall, though, the ingredients in VitaFLUX don’t pose much of a risk for most people. HerSolution pills, on the other hand, have one ingredient that we’re not thrilled by the inclusion of — dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Even though HerSolution’s 25mg dose of DHEA technically puts it in the “possibly safe” category, it still has the potential to interact with a multitude of mental health prescriptions, and it may worsen psychiatric disorders (among other adverse effects). This doesn’t mean that HerSolution is unsafe when used as directed, but it does make it a riskier choice than alternatives without DHEA, like VitaFLUX.

And, for both pill options, neither may be ideal for those on blood pressure medications, as nitric oxide has vasodilating effects.

Switching focus to topicals, both OMG! Cream and Jolt Gel pose fairly low risks for adverse effects. As with VitaFLUX, Jolt Gel has the potential to cause a herpes flare-up due to its L-arginine content (which is the case with HerSolution Gel, too). And OMG! Cream may cause some minor side effects, like skin itching or irritation.

Insider Tip: Based on our research, individuals who are pregnant or breastfeeding would be safest using a non-prescription OTC arousal gel, like Jolt Gel or HerSolution Gel. (OMG! Cream should be avoided due to its pentoxifylline content, which is an FDA Pregnancy Category C ingredient.)


Winner: Wisp OMG! Cream

Judging the effectiveness of products intended to support female libido poses a bit of a challenge — everyone reacts differently to different treatments. For example, someone may experience fantastic results from HerSolution, while others may say it did absolutely nothing for them. And the same can be said for the topical options or even the prescriptions approved by the FDA for the sole purpose of treating hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).

Wisp, however, does something for OMG! Cream that the other companies don’t — customization. As noted on the product’s treatment information guide, OMG! Cream is not a mass-produced product; it’s customized and compounded according to the information you provide to your Wisp doctor. (This is why no dosages are listed on the product page.) Even though this doesn’t guarantee that OMG! Cream will work for everyone, it does mean that the quantity of the active ingredients is tailored to each patient’s specific case.

And sildenafil, one of OMG! Cream’s active ingredients, has shown promising results in recent studies as a topical treatment for female sexual dysfunction. However, the other products in this guide have ingredients with the potential for positive outcomes, too. For instance, a systematic review of research studies suggests that supplemental oral products containing L-arginine and L-citrulline (such as VitaFLUX) may be beneficial for the treatment of HSDD.

Special Offer: Save $5 on VitaFLUX


Winner: Unbound Jolt Gel

On average, safe and effective female arousal products will cost you somewhere between $35-$70 per month (or per bottle). And some products, like VitaFLUX, offer subscription deals that shave a percentage off your cost and automatically deliver more product to you at a specified interval.

If you have health insurance coverage, then Vyleesi autoinjectors could be your least expensive choice. The manufacturer of the drug notes that some insurance plans can bring the cost down to $0. But, for those who are uninsured, you could pay up to $956 for four doses.

Because of this very wide range of potential prices, we chose the next least-expensive option, Jolt Gel, as our winner for cost. Since it’s an OTC product, each 1oz bottle costs $24 for everyone, and it should get you around 100 or so uses if you adhere to the recommended pea-sized treatment amount. This makes the cost of each treatment only about $0.24. (We appreciate the Unbound customer service team explaining that the company’s estimate of “pea-sized” is .25g worth of gel.)


Winner: Addyi

Often, the more convenient a treatment is, the easier it tends to be to integrate into your routine — and the more likely you are to stick with it and potentially see results. Convenience can be a very subjective thing, however, and what might be considered the most convenient treatment to you could be the most bothersome one to someone else.

We think Addyi stands out as a convenient option for a few reasons:

  • It’s a one-pill dose per day (much less than VitaFLUX’s six capsules).
  • For $15, you can get a virtual visit to obtain a prescription through Addyi’s telehealth partner, beyondMD.
  • You can have your prescription filled by Addyi’s pharmacy partner, PhilRx, and it will be delivered to you for free every month.

The final two points are similar to the process of obtaining a prescription for Vyleesi — you can have a virtual visit for around $20, and your prescription will ship for free. However, Vyleesi’s administration method might not exactly be convenient for everyone. Having to inject yourself in the abdomen or thigh 45 minutes before sexual activity may pose a bit of a challenge for some, especially compared to taking a single pill.

However, Vyleesi starts working in those 45 minutes, whereas Addyi takes time (up to a couple of months) to build up in your system. The convenience of either prescription option really boils down to your specific needs and desires. For example, if you’re consistently sexually active, then the Addyi may be a better fit for you than Vyleesi, which only allows for eight doses per month, at maximum (and each refill is only four doses). You can also use both if you’d like; they don’t interact with each other.

For over-the-counter supplement options, HerSolution pills or VitaFLUX’s powder form could be the most convenient. The first is a single-pill daily dose, and the VitaFLUX sugar-free powder can be mixed into water twice per day (with or without food). Additionally, only VitaFLUX is available as a subscription for automatic deliveries.

When it comes to topicals — gels and creams — the idea of being able to apply a product and have it work within the hour (similar to Vyleesi) could perfectly fit your idea of convenience, but others may not like the potentially “messy” aspect of topicals. JoltGel can be convenient in its own way as a fast-acting gel, but HerSolution Gel and OMG! Cream both have specific standout qualities.

HerSolution Gel isn’t just an arousal gel, but it also acts as a personal lubricant, which the other two don’t; this could be particularly helpful for people struggling with vaginal dryness as a symptom. And OMG! Cream, provided through telehealth company Wisp, can be prescribed entirely online with free delivery and the option for recurring deliveries every quarter in packs of one or two bottles.

How our top recommendations compare

In the chart below, we compare our top picks in several key ways to help you decide which product best suits your needs. If you’re interested in learning more details, you can find our complete evaluation of these products in their dedicated sections.

One-time single purchase cost
Servings or uses per single item
Subscription available?
How long to work?
Prescription or OTC?
$49.95 ($44.95 when you use our links)
30 days worth
Yes (15% off)
About 20 days
30 days worth
Varies; could take 1-3 months
OMG! Cream
15 treatments
Yes (10-15% off)
15-30 minutes
Prescription (through Wisp only)
Jolt Gel
100 treatments (if you use the recommended pea-sized amount)
5-15 minutes
HerSolution Gel
Varies based on amount used
15-30 minutes
$20 per month with insurance, and “never more than $149” per month for those without insurance who qualify for the savings program
30 days worth
Free monthly delivery when you use the prescription’s affiliated pharmacy, PhilRx
4-8 weeks
Insurance could bring costs down to $0 for some but can cost up to around $1,000 for four doses
Each autoinjector pen contains a single dose
Only available through the specialty pharmacy KnippeRx, but recurring monthly shipping is free
45 minutes

Additionally, as you can see below, we compared the sizes of VitaFLUX and HerSolution pills.

Best Instant Female Arousal Pills Hersolution Vitaflux Pill Comparison

Photo by Innerbody Research

Both pills are a bit on the larger side, which might make topicals a more appealing option for some people. And this becomes especially pertinent when you take into consideration that Promescent instructs VitaFLUX users to take three capsules in the morning and three at night, while a serving of HerSolution is only one tablet per day.

Who are female arousal products for?

Female libido support products are generally intended to aid women or AFAB individuals who:

  • Are experiencing a dip in their libido or sex drive
  • Have difficulty achieving orgasm
  • Are struggling with vaginal dryness
  • May be feeling less pleasure from sex due to various reasons, such as menopause
  • Are diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or another form of female sexual dysfunction

Some of the products, like over-the-counter (OTC) arousal topicals or gels, can also be used simply because you want to enhance your sexual experience. Prescription topicals, like Wisp’s OMG! Cream, though, are typically for those struggling with distressing sexual symptoms. (The Wisp online consultation quiz specifically asks if you’ve been experiencing a lower interest in sex than usual or difficulty reaching orgasm.)

Who should look elsewhere?

Besides having male anatomy, there aren’t too many reasons why the female libido-supporting products in this guide can’t be potentially beneficial for someone interested in trying them. However, certain products may be more ideal than others for people’s unique needs.

  • Individuals with HSDD may do better with one of the two available FDA-approved prescriptions — Addyi (pill) or Vyleesi (injection).
  • Those looking for an “instant” fix could find that topicals or Vyleesi are what they need (these work within the hour).
  • People seeking a more long-term solution might prefer supplements or Addyi (these options take weeks or months to work, but the potential benefits last longer).

Additionally, it’s important to note a few safety considerations:

  • Products containing L-arginine — such as Jolt Gel, HerSolution Gel, and VitaFLUX — could trigger a herpes flare-up (oral, genital, or both).
  • HerSolution pills (not the gel) contain a synthetic form of DHEA, a hormone that acts as a precursor to androgens and estrogens. This ingredient has the potential to interact with a host of medications, increase the risk of certain cancers, lower “good” HDL cholesterol, trigger manic episodes, and more. We cover further safety details in HerSolution’s dedicated review section.
  • It’s recommended that pregnant or nursing individuals stick with OTC topicals, as some ingredients may harm your baby.

What do female arousal pills and gels do?

At varying times and for many reasons, including the hormonal changes of menopause, women and AFAB individuals may notice that their libido has dropped and their desire for sex is much lower than it used to be. Fortunately, there are a few generally safe and effective female arousal products on the market.

These products take on a few different forms — supplements, gels or topicals, and prescription medications — each with their own way of working to try and rectify your concerns. But how exactly do they work?


Female libido support supplements often tout being an “all-natural” approach to treating sexual concerns. These supplements generally contain herbal and botanical ingredients, vitamins and minerals, or organic compounds, like amino acids. Some, including HerSolution, may use synthetic forms of hormones, like DHEA and melatonin.

The main goals for these ingredients usually fall into one of three categories of potential benefits:

  • Increasing blood flow to the genitals and relaxing smooth muscle tissue by influencing nitric oxide (NO) production.
  • Regulating sex hormones — estrogen and testosterone — which may improve sex drive and other related symptoms.
  • Balancing neurotransmitters, some of which play a major role in libido and sexual excitement.


Female arousal gels or creams can also help with sexual satisfaction. While these products can’t affect things like hormone or neurotransmitter balance, some of the ingredients can increase genital blood flow and sensitivity, and others can add additional vaginal lubrication.

Like supplements, OTC female arousal topicals often rely on botanical ingredients and amino acids. But prescription topicals, like OMG! Cream, add drugs, such as sildenafil, to the mix.


The remaining female arousal aids are a prescription pill and injection: Addyi and Vyleesi. These medications are FDA-approved to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder or HSDD. This disorder is believed to be caused by an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain. But other factors, like satisfaction in a relationship or self-esteem, may also play a role.

Due to the believed involvement of neurotransmitters, both Addyi and Vyleesi regulate or modify the release of these chemical messengers in different ways — the former on serotonin (and indirectly dopamine and norepinephrine) and the latter on dopamine and norepinephrine alone.

Is there an instant female arousal pill?

At this time, there aren’t any safe and effective products in pill form that will lead to instant female arousal. In fact, pills actually tend to take the longest to start working (anywhere from a couple of weeks to a month or so). But the prescription pill, Addyi, and supplements, like VitaFLUX, have the potential to promote the longest-lasting benefits as they build up and continue to be in your system.

The closest thing to instant you’ll find are topicals, such as OMG! Cream and JoltGel, or the prescription injection Vyleesi. These all work within the hour, but the effects only last a short amount of time. Topicals can be effective for around 20-60 minutes, and Vyleesi content in the body peaks at around one hour before falling again.

Even with combining Addyi and Vyleesi, there don’t appear to be any known risks of mixing these two approaches together at the time of this writing. If this changes, we’ll update this guide with an appropriate warning. But, for now, it appears safe to take a supplement to promote potential long-term benefits while also using female arousal topicals for an extra, more timely boost.

Promescent VitaFLUX

Best over-the-counter pill

Best Instant Female Arousal Pills Vitaflux Bottle

Photo by Innerbody Research


  • Arginine, citrulline, and carnitine can improve blood flow to the genitalia
  • Zinc and magnesium may help physical arousal in people with deficiencies
  • Available in pill or sugar-free Mint Mojito powder form
  • Capsules are vegan-friendly (corn- and plant-based gelatin)
  • Ingredients are generally safe for most people
  • Subscribe for 15% off of recurring deliveries
  • Save $5 when you visit Promescent using our links on this page


  • If opting for pills, you'll need to take six per day (three pills, twice)
  • Not suitable for those with corn allergies
  • Potential results take patience to see
  • L-arginine may trigger a herpes flare-up
  • No plain or other flavors of powder available

Promescent made its name by pioneering delay sprays to help men overcome premature ejaculation, but the company has since greatly expanded its catalog of sexual health products. It formulates its VitaFLUX supplement for men or women (both of which are the exact same except for label color), but in this guide, we'll focus on what this supplement might do for those with female anatomy. Promescent claims its VitaFLUX for Women may help:

  • Raise libido and sex drive
  • Promote increased vaginal moisture
  • Lead to better orgasms
  • Aid in faster recovery from injury or exhaustion

We’ll investigate the validity of these claims next, but it seems like Promescent intends for VitaFLUX to boost both sexual and overall wellness. This is similar to how Leading Edge Health — the company behind HerSolution — markets its female libido supplements.

Ingredients and efficacy

Best Instant Female Arousal Pills Vitaflux Ingredients

Photo by Innerbody Research

Before discussing efficacy, let’s first take a look at the active ingredients in VitaFLUX, which include:

  • L-Arginine: 2,000mg
  • L-Citrulline: 1,000mg
  • L-Carnitine tartrate: 1,000mg
  • Magnesium: 64mg
  • Zinc: 10.5mg

A few of these ingredients are found in competing products as well. For example, Provestra (another product from the makers of HerSolution with ingredients intended for menopause relief) also includes L-arginine and zinc.

Now, we’ll delve into how (or if) these ingredients can potentially provide the benefits suggested by Promescent.


A systematic review of research studies suggests that L-arginine (along with L-citrulline) can result in greater sexual arousal and satisfaction for pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women who have HSDD or a related concern. The effective daily dosages that led to promising results within the examined studies were similar to the arginine dose delivered daily by VitaFLUX. These positive results are likely due to the fact that L-arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which promotes better blood flow throughout the body (including to the genitals). Nitric oxide is also believed to play a major role in the smooth muscle relaxation of sexual arousal.

Additionally, the increase in blood circulation from nitric oxide’s vasodilation properties can reduce vaginal dryness, as vaginal lubrication is actually ultra-filtered blood.


L-Citrulline is partially converted to L-arginine, which is then converted to nitric oxide, meaning that this amino acid can also promote NO production. Research on L-citrulline for sexual dysfunction usually involves it being used with L-arginine, and most of the research on L-citrulline alone involves men.

For example, one study found that 1.5g (1,500mg) of L-citrulline appears to be a safe and effective alternative treatment for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. However, since researchers note that this outcome is likely due to increased NO production, it can be assumed that women may also experience similar benefits from L-citrulline.


L-Carnitine is an amino acid that plays a critical role in energy production — it transports fatty acids to the mitochondria (that “powerhouse of the cell” you likely heard about in science class) to be turned into a form of energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This amino acid also shows the potential to improve exercise performance while reducing oxidative stress in response to resistance training. This could be why Promescent states that VitaFLUX may be able to help you recover more quickly from injury or exhaustion.

And, while there isn’t much research on L-carnitine and sexual function, one study on lambs found that “a disruption in carnitine homeostasis” led to a reduction in bioavailable NO. In this study, maintaining carnitine homeostasis kept ATP levels adequate, which also appeared to have a positive effect on preserving Hsp90 activity. This “molecular chaperone” can help support hormone signaling pathways (such as those for estrogen and testosterone).


The research on magnesium and sexual function is sparse, but there is definitely some potential for it to be a beneficial addition. One study on the magnesium levels of men reporting premature ejaculation (PE) found that lower levels were “significantly related” to the condition. However, more research is needed on the relationship between magnesium and PE.

A separate study on the role magnesium plays in hypertension and cardiovascular disease has information that’s actually more closely related to the potential benefits for female sexual dysfunction than the other study. Researchers note that the mineral mimics the effects of a calcium channel blocker — a drug for lowering blood pressure that allows “blood vessels to relax and open.” This results in increased nitric oxide production and improved blood flow, similar to the amino acids in the VitaFLUX formula.


One study from 2021 found that zinc supplementation for postmenopausal women whose serum zinc levels were low resulted in dramatic improvements in desire for sex and sexual pleasure; vaginal lubrication improved, while pain diminished. This may be due to the resulting increase in testosterone found by the researchers.

Additionally, one study on zinc and nitric oxide notes that both are heavily involved in the various signal transduction pathways of the body, possessing “intersecting pathways.”

As with all treatments, VitaFLUX may not work for everyone or provide the same potential benefits to everyone. If this supplement is right for you and your body, you’ll likely start to see some improvements after around a month or so. If there are no noticeable changes whatsoever after your first bottle is gone (a month of treatment), then it may be time to try something else.


The ingredients in VitaFLUX fall well below established tolerable upper limits, and the product should generally be safe for most people. Any side effects are likely to be very mild and could include stomach upset or diarrhea.

However, we always recommend speaking with your doctor before trying a new supplement to make sure it’s a safe choice for you.

The list below details some particular instances where VitaFLUX may not be ideal:

  • Taking L-arginine could trigger a herpes flare-up (both HSV-1 and HSV-2).
  • L-carnitine can possibly interact with some medications: doxorubicin, thyroid hormones, and blood thinners.
  • Due to the vasodilating effects of nitric oxide, this product might not be safe for people taking certain medications, such as those for blood pressure.
  • Zinc may interact with antibiotics, penicillamine, and thiazide diuretics.
  • Although the zinc content is far below the tolerable upper limit for adults (40mg daily), be careful not to over-supplement if you take another product containing zinc. Exceeding the upper limit of zinc consumption for an extended period of time is unsafe and could lead to a deficit of copper in your body, among other consequences.

Also, people who are pregnant or breastfeeding should avoid taking VitaFLUX.

Purchasing and pricing

Promescent sells VitaFLUX in a few different ways. The chart below details the pricing of these different quantities and forms.

One-time purchase price (with our $5 off discount)Subscription price (15% off)Amount
1 bottle of capsules$45.95$42.461-month supply
3 bottles of capsules$137.35$121.003-month supply
30 servings of powder$45.95$42.461-month supply
90 servings of powder$137.35$121.003-month supply

If you prefer shopping on Amazon, you can find VitaFLUX there as well, but you’ll have to pay $49.99 per bottle; you won’t be able to use our $5 discount or subscribe for 15% off of recurring deliveries. Also, on the Promescent website, shipping is free for orders over $20, meaning that any VitaFLUX purchase will qualify. HerSolution, in contrast, has a confusing shipping cost setup that may or may not require you to pay for shipping depending on where you buy the product and in what quantity.

And something to keep in mind when deciding which form of VitaFLUX you want to purchase is how often or much of the supplement needs to be taken:

  • VitaFLUX capsules are six per day, three in the morning and three at night.
  • The sugar-free Mint Mojito powder is taken as one scoop mixed in water twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening.

Finally, if you’re unsatisfied with your purchase from Promescent, VitaFLUX qualifies for the company’s 60-day money-back guarantee. However, this offer is only valid for new customers or existing customers trying the product for the first time.

Wisp OMG! Cream

Best fast arousal product

Best Instant Female Arousal Pills Omg Cream Bottle

Photo by Innerbody Research


  • Prescription is customized based on your unique case
  • Topical sildenafil has shown promise in a clinical study
  • Starts working in about 30 minutes
  • Subscriptions available to lower costs and auto-ship one or two bottles per quarter
  • Telehealth visit is included in the purchase price


  • Not safe for pregnant individuals; pentoxifylline can harm your baby
  • Only 15 treatments per bottle
  • Doesn’t treat underlying cause of sexual dysfunction

OMG! Cream from the sexual-health-focused telehealth company Wisp is a prescription topical arousal gel that’s compounded according to the information you provide during your virtual visit. Its star ingredient is sildenafil, the active ingredient in Viagra. Unlike Addyi and Vyleesi, sildenafil isn’t FDA-approved for the treatment of any female sexual dysfunction concerns, so the use of the drug in OMG! Cream is considered off-label.

In comparison to the wait it takes for supplements to work (weeks to months), topicals like OMG! Cream take effect within an hour of application. This makes topicals the closest thing to an instant female arousal product.

After you decide how much OMG! Cream you want and finish checkout, you’ll be prompted to verify your identity and complete a quick telehealth visit. Depending on the state you reside in, your telehealth visit may be just a quiz where you describe your symptoms and current health, or you may also need to speak with your assigned Wisp physician via phone or over online chat. Once that’s completed, you should hear back on the approval or denial of your prescription within 24 hours (our testers actually received responses within an hour).

Ingredients and effectiveness

Best Instant Female Arousal Pills Omg Cream Ingredients

Photo by Innerbody Research

Wisp’s OMG! Cream contains four active ingredients (but only the medications are listed on the bottle):

  • Sildenafil
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Ergoloid Mesylate
  • Peppermint

We haven’t listed the dosage of the ingredients because each bottle of OMG! Cream is compounded according to your individual needs based on the information you provide to your Wisp doctor. The percentages you receive in your bottle could be similar or very different from the dosages shown in the picture above.

As with many other female arousal products, Wisp’s aims to promote better blood flow to improve vaginal lubrication and increase physical arousal. Here’s how the OMG! Cream ingredients can work to help:


The research on topical sildenafil, the active ingredient in Viagra, as a topical treatment for arousal concerns in women is only in its infancy, but the results are promising. A small 2020 double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that sildenafil cream led to “clinically significant increases in genital and self-reported measures of arousal compared to placebo cream” in six female patients. It’s worth mentioning that this study specifically used 3.6% sildenafil cream; smaller doses may not have as significant of an effect.


Pentoxifylline, when taken orally, can improve blood flow and it’s often prescribed to patients with poor circulation. However, research suggests that topically applying the drug can have the same vasodilatory effect.

Ergoloid mesylates

Ergoloid mesylates (also known as co-dergocrine mesilate) is a medication usually used to treat cognitive impairment due to aging, but some research has investigated it as part of a topical for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The cream containing this ingredient performed better than plain testosterone cream, and ergoloid’s effectiveness was attributed to its vasoactive properties.


Peppermint contains menthol, which can induce “cutaneous vasodilation” — meaning it improves blood flow to the skin where it’s applied.


When purchasing from Wisp, shipping is always free, and your telehealth visit for OMG! Cream is included in the purchase price. Since it’s a prescription product, you can’t return this cream, but you can contact Wisp within 15 days of your purchase to request a refund. This policy is shorter than the 60 days for VitaFLUX, but we appreciate it existing in a more straightforward manner than HerSolution’s.

Each bottle of OMG! Cream contains 15 treatments if you adhere to the company’s instructions to use a pea-sized amount. The chart below breaks down the cost of OMG! Cream as a one-time purchase and as a subscription. Similar to Promescent, purchasing a subscription from Wisp will reduce your cost-per-bottle

PriceCost per bottleNumber of treatments
One bottle, one time$39$3915
One bottle per quarter$11 per month ($33 total)$3315
Two bottles, one time$66$3330
Two bottles per quarter$20 per month ($60 total)$3030

To learn more about Wisp and the platform’s telehealth visit process, check out our full Wisp review.


Runner-up OTC pill

Best Instant Female Arousal Pills Hersolution Box

Photo by Innerbody Research


  • Made of mostly botanical ingredients
  • Should be generally safe when used as directed
  • Most ingredients have decent research suggesting potential efficacy
  • Purchasing in bulk reduces cost per box
  • 67-day money-back guarantee


  • Company fails to mention inclusion of melatonin and potentially dangerous DHEA
  • Money-back guarantee requires minimum purchase of 2-month supply
  • Can interact with medications, including those for mental health concerns
  • Might worsen certain mental health conditions or raise risk of mania
  • Potential results take at least a few weeks to months
  • Costs can add up over time

HerSolution is a female libido support supplement from the wellness company Leading Edge Health. Like VitaFLUX, it’s intended to help women and AFAB individuals with sexual dysfunction symptoms, like vaginal dryness, difficulty achieving orgasm, and low sex drive.

This one-pill, once-a-day supplement may be more appealing to some who don’t wish to take six VitaFLUX capsules and also aren’t fans of the powdered alternative. However, as with all of the pills mentioned in this guide, the potential effects will take time to appear — anywhere from a few weeks to a couple of months.

Ingredients, safety, and efficacy

Best Instant Female Arousal Pills Hersolution Ingredients

Photo by Innerbody Research

Unlike the other options in our top picks, there’s a strange lack of transparency with some of the ingredients in HerSolution. On the Leading Edge Health website, the company lists the “HerSolution formula” as:

  • Niacin: 20mg
  • Hops extract: 200mg
  • Mucuna pruriens: 125mg
  • Tribulus terrestris: 150mg
  • Ginkgo biloba: 125mg
  • Epimedium sagittatum: 100mg
  • Cayenne pepper: 30mg

This formula is further described as “a blend of herbals, amino acids, aphrodisiacs, and sexual nutrients.” We’re not entirely sure what a “sexual nutrient” is, but we do know that while the formula is, indeed, herbals and some other botanical ingredients used as aphrodisiacs, there aren’t any amino acids in HerSolution. Niacin (or nicotinic acid) can come from an amino acid, tryptophan, but it isn’t one itself — and that’s the closest thing we could find.

But that’s not where the transparency issue lies; the main problem we have with HerSolution is Leading Edge Health’s confusing decision not to mention that this supplement contains two synthetic hormones: melatonin (5mg) and DHEA (25mg). The former isn’t the worst addition in the world (it may cause daytime sleepiness and headaches), but the latter can have serious health consequences; DHEA is not studied nearly enough to be worth an inclusion without mention.

The amount of DHEA in HerSolution falls under the “possibly safe” category if you use the supplement as directed, and the other ingredients are all generally safe (with some decent scientific backing for helping sexual dysfunction), but an ingredient that the Mayo Clinic suggests avoiding seems worth a section on the product page.

To be clear, we’re not saying that you shouldn’t try HerSolution if it sounds like something you’re interested in — it very well may be the most helpful option for you, and you should discuss it with your doctor. We just want to properly inform you of the potential risks associated with the supplement since Leading Edge Health doesn’t try to. To that end, DHEA may:

  • Interact with prescription medications (particularly those for mental health, including SSRIs, antipsychotics, carbamazepine, lithium, and valproic acid)
  • Worsen psychiatric disorders and increase the risk of mania in people with mood disorders
  • Reduce HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels
  • Increase the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers (prostate, breast, and ovarian)
  • Lead to oily skin, acne, or hirsutism in women (male-pattern hair growth)

For more information on the potential drug interactions, you can find extensive lists from the Mayo Clinic and Mount Sinai.

In terms of potential benefits of DHEA, the synthetic hormone may improve sex drive in older, postmenopausal women, specifically (not younger, premenopausal women). The results have been mixed, however.

Looking at the rest of the ingredients, the outlook for trying HerSolution is a bit more positive. While we delve further into the nitty gritty details of these ingredients in our full HerSolution review, the following list breaks down some of the research.

  • Niacin: Can improve blood flow via the promotion of nitric oxide production.
  • Hops extract: May help relieve hot flashes and reduced libido via its potential ability to bind to estrogen receptors.
  • Mucuna pruriens: Contains a precursor to dopamine, one of the neurotransmitters heavily involved in sexual arousal.
  • Tribulis terrestris: “Significantly improved” postmenopausal patients' levels of desire and arousal, along with promoting orgasms and reducing pain from intercourse in one 2016 study.
  • Ginkgo biloba: Can influence nitric oxide production.
  • Epimedium sagittatum: Might increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women by promoting estrogen biosynthesis.
  • Cayenne pepper: Acts as a vasodilator and can promote the release of nitric oxide.
  • Melatonin: May improve sexual function in postmenopausal women.

Purchasing and pricing

You can purchase HerSolution directly from Leading Edge Health, on either the company’s website or the product’s dedicated site (both are legitimate). Buying more than a one-month supply also gets you a free tube of HerSolution Gel, which retails for $59.95 (we discuss the gel in more detail later on).

Here’s how the cost of HerSolution breaks down:

1-month supply2-month supply3-month supply6-month supply
Price per month$59.95$44.98$43.32$36.66
Includes HerSolution gel?

Depending on whether you purchase from Leading Edge Health or from the HerSolution website, the shipping costs will differ. You always need to pay for shipping from the former, but the latter only charges shipping if you purchase a 1-month supply; bulk orders ship free. The different prices are noted in the lists below.

Leading Edge Health website (all orders):

  • FedEx 7-10 day: $10.99
  • FedEx 2-3 day: $16.99
  • FedEx overnight: $38.99

HerSolution website (1-month supply only):

  • USPS standard 7-14 day: $5.99
  • FedEx 7-10 day: $14.99
  • FedEx 2-3 day: $18.99
  • FedEx overnight: $38.99

And because it can take a few weeks to see results, Leading Edge Health suggests trying the product for at least 60 days. If you’re not satisfied, you can take advantage of the company’s 67-day money-back guarantee. Promescent and Wisp, in comparison, also have set lengths for their guarantees but they don’t require you to wait any specific amount of time.

Insider Tip: You’ll need to buy at least a 2-month supply of HerSolution to be eligible for the money-back guarantee. Unfortunately, the company doesn’t make this well known, but the policy notes that all returns should have “two-opened containers” — meaning you purchased two and tried the product for 60 days. Of course, nothing is stopping you from trying it, stopping it if you don’t like it, and still sending in those empty containers for your money back after the 60 days are up.

Unbound Jolt Gel

Best over-the-counter topical


  • Around 100 treatments per bottle if used as directed
  • Contains amino acids
  • Extracts are certified organic
  • Should be safe for pregnant individuals (check with your doctor, though)
  • Less expensive than many other options


  • Not recommended for people with genital herpes due to L-arginine content
  • Some people may not like the warming, yet cold and minty sensation
  • No amounts given to ingredients

Jolt Gel from the brand Unbound is an OTC water-based arousal gel. Since the company doesn’t offer subscriptions or bulk deals, each bottle you purchase is $24. This price is similar to that of Wisp’s OMG! Cream, but Jolt Gel offers you around 100 treatments per bottle, while OMG! Cream contains 15. Like VitaFLUX, however, Jolt Gel is not recommended for those with genital herpes, as the L-arginine content may trigger a flare-up.


Unlike OMG! Cream, Jolt Gel doesn’t contain any medications. This gel’s star ingredients are:

  • Amino acids, particularly L-arginine
  • Peppermint oil
  • Damiana

The other amino acid in the gel, L-ornithine, doesn’t have much research on it as a topical, but it does appear to have some potential as a stress hormone (cortisol, specifically) reducer when supplemented orally.

L-Arginine and peppermint oil (due to its menthol content) can promote increased blood flow through vasodilation. And Damiana, or Turnera diffusa, is considered an aphrodisiac in traditional medicine. Studies are limited, but Damiana appeared to help “sexually exhausted male rats” recover sexual behavior in a 2009 study.

HerSolution Gel


  • Mostly-botanical formula should be safe for sensitive skin
  • Can be used as an arousal gel and personal lubricant
  • Bulk purchases can save money


  • More expensive than other topical options
  • L-arginine can trigger herpes flare-ups

A separate product than the pill for low libido that bears the same name, HerSolution Gel may help with some of the physical issues associated with arousal. This water-based gel can be used to increase vaginal lubrication and promote physical arousal through the inclusion of L-arginine.

The active ingredients in HerSolution Gel include:

  • L-arginine, a precursor of nitric oxide, which helps dilate blood vessels and stimulate blood flow.
  • Aloe, shea, and cocoa butter can provide additional vaginal lubrication.

Each tube, supposedly, contains a 30-day supply. It’s unclear how much gel is estimated as one use, though. This is in contrast to Wisp and Unbound clearly stating that their products use a pea-sized treatment.

Leading Edge Health offers a bulk purchase discount, so the more tubes you buy, the more you save. If you buy a 3-month or 6-month supply, you’ll also receive a free box of HerSolution pills. Here’s how the costs work out:

1-month supply2-month supply3-month supply6-month supply
Price per month$59.95$47.48$43.32$34.15
Includes HerSolution pills?


Best prescription pill


  • Demonstrated efficacy improving arousal issues in multiple clinical studies
  • Convenient $15 online consultation for a prescription
  • Free monthly delivery if prescription filled through partner pharmacy
  • Financial aid available for those who qualify


  • A long list of side effects, some that can be serious
  • Can be expensive if you don’t have insurance
  • Takes about a month or so to work

Addyi (flibanserin) — also known as “the little pink pill” — is an FDA-approved prescription pill to treat Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). HSDD affects premenopausal women, and it’s believed to be caused by a neurotransmitter imbalance in the brain. However, researchers acknowledge that other reasons, like self-image or happiness in a relationship, can also play a role.

Some HSDD symptoms include:

  • Decrease in sexual thoughts
  • Lack of response to sexual stimuli
  • Loss of interest in sex
  • No desire to initiate sex
  • Avoiding sexual situations

Additionally, a major part of these symptoms is that they need to be causing you some form of distress. If you don’t care about not having sexual thoughts or desires, then it isn’t HSDD.

Cost and ordering

To receive a prescription, you’ll need to consult with a physician. If you’d rather not wait to see a doctor in person, you can visit the Addyi website and consult with a doctor online using the telehealth service beyondMD for $15. You’ll fill out a questionnaire about your current health status and lifestyle, and a licensed provider will review it and decide if Addyi sounds like a fit for you.

Otherwise, if you prefer to order the prescription through a face-to-face appointment, you can contact Addyi for a list of prescribers. If the doctor you see prescribes the medication, you can pick it up at a local pharmacy or have it shipped to your home for free through Addyi’s partner pharmacy, PhilRx. (The latter also includes the opportunity to apply for the savings program.)

The cost of the medication varies depending on insurance coverage. Some insurance plans offer Addyi for only $20 each month. If you don’t have insurance, you can apply for the savings program to potentially bring costs down to “never more than $149” per month if you qualify.

Ingredients and safety

The active ingredient in Addyi is the drug flibanserin, which is FDA-approved to treat HSDD. You take Addyi once daily at bedtime. This prescription shouldn’t be taken with alcohol (the other FDA-approved prescription, Vyleesi, doesn’t have this restriction). Those who have any liver problems should also avoid the medication.

You may experience some side effects on Addyi, including:

  • Dizziness
  • Sleep difficulties
  • Nausea
  • Dry mouth
  • Fatigue
  • Low blood pressure
  • Loss of consciousness

The prescription’s website includes a comprehensive overview of drug interactions, side effects, and potential risks. We recommend bringing up any conditions or medications that might be relevant to your use of Addyi during your doctor consultation.

Overall, research points to Addyi being well-tolerated and effective at improving sexual desire in premenopausal individuals with HSDD. This medication does take some time to potentially work, however. Like the supplement options, Addyi can take a few weeks to months before the effects kick in.



  • Clinical trials show a positive impact on HSDD
  • Convenient telehealth consultation and free prescription shipping
  • Financial assistance available for qualifying individuals without insurance
  • There is no restriction on drinking alcohol while using Vyleesi


  • Each prescription fill only contains four doses
  • A long list of possible side effects
  • Administration requires a self-injection
  • Not recommended for those with high blood pressure or cardiovascular concerns
  • Can be extremely expensive if you are uninsured and don’t qualify for assistance

Vyleesi (bremelanotide) is an FDA-approved injectable prescription medication that can be used as needed to treat Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. HSDD is defined as a “persistent or recurrent absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity” that leads to distress or relationship difficulties. It’s not caused by a medical or mental health issue, relationship problem, or drug use. Essentially, you know you have HSDD if your libido used to be acceptable to you, but it’s recently taken a dip, and this lower libido is causing you distress.

Clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of Vyleesi for the treatment of HSDD have shown promising results — versus a placebo, researchers reported that Vyleesi “significantly increased sexual desire.”

To take Vyleesi, you use the autoinjector to give yourself an injection under the skin on your thighs or stomach about 45 minutes before sexual activity. The manufacturer notes that it shouldn’t be used more than once per day or more than eight times per month.

Ingredients and safety

The active ingredient in Vyleesi is bremelanotide, an FDA-approved drug to treat HSDD. It’s important to note that this medication does bring about the possibility of side effects, including (but not limited to):

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blurred vision
  • Injection site reactions
  • Headache
  • Blood pressure increase
  • Fast or slow heartbeat
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Tingling or numbness
  • Dizziness
  • Nasal congestion
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Sweating
  • Muscle pains
  • Hyperpigmentation

Because Vyleesi can alter your heart rate and blood pressure, it isn’t recommended for people with hypertension or cardiovascular issues. Even if you don’t have those concerns, it’s important to speak with your primary care provider to ensure Vyleesi is safe for you.

Cost and ordering

You can obtain a Vyleesi prescription on the prescription’s dedicated website by consulting with a doctor online via Prescribery. These telemedicine consultations cost $15; if you receive a Vyleesi prescription, it will be shipped to you for free.

If you have insurance, the cost of Vyleesi may be covered. It’s a good idea to check with your plan beforehand to verify. If you don’t have insurance, Vyleesi offers financial assistance through an application on the prescription information website. You need to be at least 18 years old and not insured by a government agency (such as Medicaid) to be eligible for financial aid.

Instant female arousal pill FAQ



Innerbody uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Clayton, A. H., Goldstein, I., Kim, N. N., Althof, S. E., Faubion, S. S., Faught, B. M., Parish, S. J., Simon, J. A., Vignozzi, L., Christiansen, K., Davis, S. R., Freedman, M. A., Kingsberg, S. A., Kirana, P. S., Larkin, L., McCabe, M., & Sadovsky, R. (2018). The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health Process of Care for Management of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 93(4), 467–487.

  2. Nappi, P. R. E., Cucinella, L., Martella, S., Rossi, M., Tiranini, L., & Martini, E. (2016). Female sexual dysfunction (FSD): Prevalence and impact on quality of life (QoL). Maturitas, 94, 87-91.

  3. Mayo Clinic. (2023). L-arginine. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  4. Mount Sinai. (n.d.). Carnitine (L-carnitine). Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

  5. National Library of Medicine. (2023). DHEA. MedlinePlus.

  6. Mayo Clinic. (2023). DHEA. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  7. Mayo Clinic. (2023). Bremelanotide (Subcutaneous Route). Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  8. Mayo Clinic. (2023). Flibanserin (Oral Route). Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  9. Goldstein, S., Kukkonen, T., Monsef, A., & Goldstein, I. (2020). 197 A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, 2-Way Crossover Study Using Thermography to Assess the Pharmacodynamics of Sildenafil Cream, 3.6% in Healthy Women. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 17(1), S69.

  10. Cieri-Hutcherson, N. E., Jaenecke, A., Bahia, A., Lucas, D., Oluloro, A., Stimmel, L., & Hutcherson, T. C. (2021). Systematic Review of l-Arginine for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Related Conditions in Women. Pharmacy: Journal of Pharmacy Education and Practice, 9(2).

  11. (n.d.). Vyleesi Prices, Coupons and Patient Assistance Programs.

  12. Mount Sinai. (n.d.). Dehydroepiandrosterone. Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

  13. Johns Hopkins. (n.d.). How Sex Changes After Menopause. The Johns Hopkins University.

  14. Musicki, B., Liu, T., Lagoda, G. A., Bivalacqua, T. J., Strong, T. D., & Burnett, A. L. (2009). Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulation in Female Genital Tract Structures. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6, 247-253.

  15. Harvard Health Publishing. (2021). Yes, you can have better sex in midlife and in the years beyond. Harvard Medical School.

  16. Mayo Clinic. (2023). Testosterone therapy in women: Does it boost sex drive? Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  17. Reviriego C. (2014). Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction. Drugs of Today (Barcelona, Spain), 50(8), 549–556.

  18. Pachano Pesantez, G. S., & Clayton, A. H. (2021). Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Among Women: General Considerations and Pharmacological Options. Focus: Journal of Life Long Learning in Psychiatry, 19(1), 39-45.

  19. Wilhite, M. (2018). Vaginal Dryness. Integrative Medicine (Fourth Edition), 592-599.e2.

  20. Cormio, L., De Siati, M., Lorusso, F., Selvaggio, O., Mirabella, L., Sanguedolce, F., & Carrieri, G. (2011). Oral L-citrulline supplementation improves erection hardness in men with mild erectile dysfunction. Urology, 77(1), 119–122.

  21. National Institutes of Health. (2023). Carnitine Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. NIH.

  22. Koozehchian, M. S., Daneshfar, A., Fallah, E., Agha-Alinejad, H., Samadi, M., Kaviani, M., B, M. K., Jung, Y. P., Sablouei, M. H., Moradi, N., Earnest, C. P., Chandler, T. J., & Kreider, R. B. (2018). Effects of nine weeks L-Carnitine supplementation on exercise performance, anaerobic power, and exercise-induced oxidative stress in resistance-trained males. Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry, 22(4), 7-19.

  23. Jackson S. E. (2013). Hsp90: structure and function. Topics in Current Chemistry, 328, 155–240.

  24. Aloosh, M., Hassani, M., & Nikoobakht, M. (2006). Seminal plasma magnesium and premature ejaculation: a case-control study. BJU International, 98(2), 402–404.

  25. Houston, M. (2011). The Role of Magnesium in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 13(11), 843-847.

  26. Mayo Clinic. (2023). Calcium channel blockers. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  27. Mazaheri Nia, L., Iravani, M., Abedi, P., & Cheraghian, B. (2021). Effect of Zinc on Testosterone Levels and Sexual Function of Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 47(8), 804–813.

  28. Pluth, M. D., Tomat, E., & Lippard, S. J. (2011). BIOCHEMISTRY OF MOBILE ZINC AND NITRIC OXIDE REVEALED BY FLUORESCENT SENSORS. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 80, 333.

  29. Mayo Clinic. (2023). Zinc. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  30. National Institutes of Health. (2022). Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers. NIH.

  31. National Institutes of Health. (2022). Niacin Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. NIH.

  32. Besag, F. M. C., Vasey, M. J., Lao, K. S. J., & Wong, I. C. K. (2019). Adverse Events Associated with Melatonin for the Treatment of Primary or Secondary Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review. CNS Drugs, 33(12), 1167–1186.

  33. Zhang, Z., Liu, M., Zhou, C., He, P., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Li, Q., Liu, C., & Qin, X. (2021). Evaluation of Dietary Niacin and New-Onset Hypertension Among Chinese Adults. JAMA Network Open, 4(1).

  34. Keiler, A. M., Zierau, O., & Kretzschmar, G. (2013). Hop extracts and hop substances in treatment of menopausal complaints. Planta Medica, 79(7), 576–579.

  35. Abdi, F., Mobedi, H., & Roozbeh, N. (2016). Hops for Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms: Mechanisms of Action. Journal of Menopausal Medicine, 22(2), 62-64.

  36. Lampariello, L. R., Cortelazzo, A., Guerranti, R., Sticozzi, C., & Valacchi, G. (2012). The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2(4), 331-339.

  37. de Souza, K. Z., Vale, F. B., & Geber, S. (2016). Efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 23(11), 1252–1256.

  38. Mashhadi, Z. N., Irani, M., Mask, M. K., & Methie, C. (2021). A systematic review of clinical trials on Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) effectiveness on sexual function and its safety. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 11(4), 324-331.

  39. Yang, L., Lu, D., Guo, J., Meng, X., Zhang, G., & Wang, F. (2013). Icariin from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim promotes the biosynthesis of estrogen by aromatase (CYP19). Journal of ethnopharmacology, 145(3), 715–721.

  40. Juturu, V. (2016). Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2016.

  41. Abdali, K., Parandavar, N., Keshtgar, S., Emamghoreishi, M., Amooee, S., & Mosalanejad, L. (2017). The effect of melatonin on the sexual function among postmenopausal women: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 6(4), 149.

  42. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018). Understanding Unapproved Use of Approved Drugs "Off Label". FDA.

  43. Woodard, T. L., & Diamond, M. P. (2009). Physiologic Measures of Sexual Function in Women: A Review. Fertility and Sterility, 92(1), 19.

  44. Mayo Clinic. (2023). Pentoxifylline. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).

  45. Heydari, A., Sharifi, H., & Bagheri Moghaddam, A. (2019). Topical Pentoxifylline for Pressure Injury Prevention: A Call for Clinical Research. Advances in skin & Wound Care, 32(11), 486.

  46. National Library of Medicine. (2017). Ergoloid Mesylates. MedlinePlus.

  47. Gomaa, A., Eissa, M., & El-Gebaley, A. (2001). The effect of topically applied vasoactive agents and testosterone versus testosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in aged men with low sexual interest. International Journal of Impotence Research, 13(2), 93–99.

  48. Schmidt, E., Bail, S., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Atanasova, T., Stoyanova, A., Krastanov, A., & Jirovetz, L. (2009). Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha x piperita. Natural Product Communications, 4(8), 1107–1112.

  49. Craighead, D. H., & Alexander, L. M. (2016). Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow. Microvascular Research, 107, 39.

  50. Miyake, M., Kirisako, T., Kokubo, T., Miura, Y., Morishita, K., Okamura, H., & Tsuda, A. (2014). Randomised controlled trial of the effects of L-ornithine on stress markers and sleep quality in healthy workers. Nutrition Journal, 13, 53.

  51. Lovie, K., & Marashi, A. (2022). Clitoral blood flow after use of gel containing L-arginine and L-citrulline. Sexologies, 31(4), 410-412.

  52. Kotta, S., Ansari, S. H., & Ali, J. (2013). Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 7(13), 1-10.

  53. Estrada-Reyes, R., Ortiz-López, P., Gutiérrez-Ortíz, J., & Martínez-Mota, L. (2009). Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 123(3), 423–429.

  54. Goldstein, I., Kim, N. N., Clayton, A. H., DeRogatis, L. R., Giraldi, A., Parish, S. J., Pfaus, J., Simon, J. A., Kingsberg, S. A., Meston, C., Stahl, S. M., Wallen, K., & Worsley, R. (2017). Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) Expert Consensus Panel Review. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(1), 114–128.

  55. Simon, J. A., Thorp, J., & Millheiser, L. (2019). Flibanserin for Premenopausal Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Pooled Analysis of Clinical Trials. Journal of Women's Health (2002), 28(6), 769–777.

  56. Thurston, L., Hunjan, T., Mills, E. G., Wall, M. B., Ertl, N., Phylactou, M., … Dhillo, W. S. (2022). Melanocortin 4 receptor agonism enhances sexual brain processing in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 132(19).

  57. Goldstein, S. W., Gonzalez, J. R., Gagnon, C., & Goldstein, I. (2016). Peripheral Female Genital Arousal as Assessed by Thermography Following Topical Genital Application of Alprostadil vs Placebo Arousal Gel: A Proof-of-Principle Study Without Visual Sexual Stimulation. Sexual Medicine, 4(3), e166.

  58. Thomson, C., Chow, S. Roe, D., Wertheim, B., Chalasani, P., Altbach, M., Thompson, P., Stopek, A., & Maskaranic, G. (2017). Effect of Diindolylmethane on Estrogen-related Hormones, Metabolites and Tamoxifen Metabolism: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 1, 26(3), 435.

  59. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Menopause: Medicines to Help You. FDA.