You might have browsed the supplements aisle a few times, wondering which muscle-building products might work for you. After all, the pre-workout supplements market is worth over $12 billion, so something must be working.¹ You may have also heard tales of athletes or actors using steroids to get stronger or leaner without regard for side effects. Trenorol is a steroid-free bodybuilding supplement that aims to mimic the positive aspects of the steroid Trenbolone without the associated adverse effects or legal repercussions.² In this review, we’ll share our assessment of Trenorol’s efficacy, safety and overall value based on thorough research and comparison to competitors, so you can decide whether to try it.
Closer inspection and clinical research into Trenorol’s components suggest that it can compete with other pre-workout supplements, helping boost energy in the gym and recovery afterward. Anecdotal evidence also leads to the same conclusion, but you’ll still have to put in the work and eat right to see results. Trenorol claims to provide similar benefits to the steroid Trenbolone but without the adverse effects of illicit steroids. It’s inconceivable to us that this supplement could compare to steroids in efficacy, but steroids are, of course, much riskier. It’s also impossible to verify Trenorol’s claim without a 1:1 study pitting the two against one another, and since Trenbolone is both illegal and particularly dangerous, no such study is forthcoming.
Over the past two decades, Innerbody Research has helped tens of millions of readers make more informed decisions involving staying healthy and living healthier lifestyles. We have extensive experience researching and testing supplements in the fitness space, including supplements like Trenorol.
Looking at CrazyBulk’s Trenorol specifically, our researchers examined more than 50 published studies regarding Trenorol’s ingredients and how they might affect performance in the gym. We also heard from customers, both from those who had success with Trenorol and from those who didn’t. We ordered the product ourselves so we could test CrazyBulk’s website, customer service, and shipping logistics.
Additionally, like all health-related content on this website, this review was thoroughly vetted by one or more members of our Medical Review Board for accuracy.
FREE Bottle When You Buy 2 Bottles
When we evaluate any product, we consider many factors, including whether the product works and the user experience from start to finish. In Trenorol's case, we focused on four key areas, with effectiveness, safety, and cost getting more weight in our final rankings than convenience. Safety was of particular concern considering the fact that CrazyBulk markets Trenorol as a safe alternative to Trenbolone.
We went through the process of ordering Trenorol to evaluate the company’s shipping logistics and user interface, but our testing team did not consume the product for themselves. Our accounts of efficacy come from clinical research into Trenorol’s ingredients and from experiences reported by customers.
Safety is critical with any workout supplement but is even more important when a company explicitly brands their product as being a safe alternative to something else. In this case, we're comparing Trenorol to an illicit steroid called Trenbolone.
Trenorol gets high marks for safety thanks to the simple ingredient list we mentioned above. Those generous doses are still well within the levels research studies show to be safe, especially compared to the steroid Trenorol seeks to replace. But, as we discussed, that point of comparison doesn't fit quite perfectly. As with Trenorol's effectiveness, it helps to compare its safety to that of similar supplements.
Many pre-workouts contain a dozen or more ingredients. That may increase the likelihood that one or two of them make a difference in your fitness, but it also increases the chances of an adverse reaction. By keeping the ingredient list trim, CrazyBulk helps ensure that Trenorol doesn't sacrifice safety in the name of efficacy.
Research studies on each of Trenorol's four ingredients show that they can improve athletic performance, help muscle building, or accelerate fat burning. None of these studies is large or thoroughly reviewed enough to be considered conclusive.
So, taking Trenorol could help certain people with their fitness goals. But how much help are we really talking about? Well, if you're a competitive athlete, you could gain an edge in training and competitive performance, and you're likely in tune with your body enough to feel the difference. If you're a regular person just trying to reduce how self-conscious you’ll feel come beach season, you might not be able to notice the subtle difference that Trenorol can make.
The fairest point of comparison for Trenorol's effectiveness isn't the steroid it seeks to replace. It's great for marketing, but steroids are banned for a reason: they're both incredibly unsafe and remarkably effective. A better way to understand Trenorol's effectiveness is to compare it to the vast field of available pre-workout and muscle-building supplements. In that camp, Trenorol stands out for the simplicity of its ingredient list and the generous doses of those components.
We consider several factors when evaluating the cost of any supplement, including supply, ingredients, quality, and dosage. A one-to-one comparison between Trenorol and Trenbolone is neither appropriate nor practical, given the latter's illicit status. But we can get a clear look at how Trenorol compares in cost to similar supplements designed for physical fitness.
Whether you compare Trenorol to BCAAs and other amino acid supplements, pre-workout complexes, or muscle-building stacks, Trenorol is almost always more expensive. However, CrazyBulk offers a bulk purchase discount that gets you three bottles of Trenorol for the price of two.
Here's a handy chart to illustrate those savings compared to a bottle of another Trenbolone alternative from Brutal Force:
|Cost||Cost per bottle|
|Trenorol - one bottle||$64.99||$64.99|
|Trenorol - buy two, get one free||$129.99||$43.33|
|Brutal Force TBULK - one bottle||$59.99||$59.99|
|Brutal Force TBULK - buy two, get one free||$119.98||$40|
As you can see, when you buy Trenorol in bulk, the savings bring it in line with many comparable products. Still, we're aware that not everyone has the capital to spend $129.99 all at once. And the fact that CrazyBulk doesn't offer any subscription options for additional savings is disappointing.
The measure of a product's convenience depends on things like user-friendly site designs, flexible subscription options, fast and discreet shipping, and customer support that's available and genuinely helpful. CrazyBulk's convenience is mixed, with some helpful customer support elements and a straightforward dosing schedule undercut by a poorly designed website and a lack of subscription infrastructure.
You can communicate with a relatively helpful chatbot on the CrazyBulk site if you need answers to simple questions. More complicated issues will require a phone call or engagement via WhatsApp. But the bigger issue with the website is its layout. CrazyBulk offers a relatively wide variety of products, but they make it difficult to find all of them if you're just poking around the site and don't know exactly what you're after. And on pages with multiple products — like their SARMs alternatives — they split the page with large advertisements that many would think imply the listing of goods had ended. It's too easy to miss out on CrazyBulk's full catalog.
The most convenient thing about Trenorol is its dosing schedule. You can treat the supplement like a pre-workout, taking it just before your workout on workout days or in the morning on days off.
Trenorol is a pre-workout supplement for bodybuilders, fitness buffs, and athletes. Its parent company, CrazyBulk, claims that the supplement mimics the effects of the illegal but effective steroid Trenbolone, offering benefits like:
Trenorol comes in capsules, of which you take three daily before workouts. Unlike Trenbolone, Trenorol is not a banned substance and does not carry the side effects of steroid use, including male breast growth and decreased testicle size. It may, however, stimulate increased testosterone production, or at least prevent free testosterone from converting to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
To be clear, Trenorol will not do the same things that Trenbolone does. When you look closely at its ingredients, it resembles pre-workout supplements much more so than any steroid. The comparison makes a good marketing point for CrazyBulk — and the major discrepancies between Trenorol and Trenbolone shouldn’t necessarily dissuade you from taking it — but it’s important to temper your expectations.
Trenorol is a moderately effective supplement for weight and fitness training, offering ingredients that can improve nitrogen balance and enhance protein synthesis. It will not bulk you up without the work, of course. Taking Trenorol and eating a pint of ice cream while binging 10 episodes of a TV show won’t get you anywhere you want to be. But this supplement can give you a boost to make those workouts more rigorous and demanding, ultimately leading to improved physical performance.
It’s vital to understand that Trenorol is not an analog for Trenbolone, regardless of CrazyBulk’s advertising strategy. Anabolic steroids are banned because they’re dangerous, but also because they create an undeniably uneven playing field. Trenorol may enhance your workouts, but it does not offer the kind of efficacy that will cause a league or other competitive organization to target it for banishment.
Trenorol seeks to emulate the effects of the steroid Trenbolone, which the DEA assigned as a Schedule III controlled substance based on its potential for abuse and psychological or physical dependence.
Bodybuilders illicitly use Trenbolone to promote increased muscle mass and reduce fat production, which is just what it does in livestock (for which its use is approved). However, anabolic steroids like Trenbolone can also cause many health problems, including:³
Unlike the steroid it emulates, Trenorol is apparently safe in addition to being rather effective and entirely legal. It requires no prescriptions or injections and can be used during both bulking and cutting phases.
Trenorol contains four active ingredients aimed at helping you build muscle mass and quickly convert fat to energy for more intense sessions. We'll look at each of these ingredients below.
Beta-sitosterol is an abundant plant sterol found in beans, seeds, nuts, saw palmetto, and other botanicals. Studies have demonstrated β-sitosterol's ability to decrease blood cholesterol levels and exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.⁴ Trenorol promotes β-sitosterol as its primary ingredient based on its abilities to:
While many studies on β-sitosterol are animal-based, human studies have demonstrated its safety and effectiveness in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia and other issues.⁶ β-sitosterol effectively improves blood flow and oxygenation in the muscles, which may give you more strength and power as you exercise. However, many of these studies use exorbitantly large doses of β-sitosterol, especially animal studies, which use anywhere between 20 and 100mg/kg. That’s the equivalent of up to 9,000mg for a 200lb individual.
Uncaria tomentosa, also known as cat's claw or samento inner bark, is a woody vine native to South and Central America, where it has traditional medicinal use in treating several ailments. Cat's claw is a common ingredient in dietary supplements based on its potential health benefits, including:
Cat's claw appears safe when taken by healthy adults, although it may cause minor side effects like dizziness, headaches, or vomiting. However, readers should note that high doses of cat’s claw were once traditionally used to induce miscarriages, so pregnant people should avoid this ingredient at all costs. There is also some evidence that cat’s claw can trigger an immune response, making it a risky proposition for those with autoimmune diseases.
Researchers have performed very few high-quality trials on cat's claw. No conclusive scientific evidence supports its use as a treatment for any condition, and what evidence exists is almost exclusive to animal models.⁹
Urtica dioica, also known as stinging nettle, has been used in traditional medicine for centuries.¹⁰ This wide-ranging plant is a rich source of terpenoids, carotenoids, and fatty acids. Stinging nettle shows potential as a treatment for many conditions and offers several health benefits, including:¹¹
There are some important safety caveats for nettle leaf extract, especially for those on blood thinners, as nettle can have an anticoagulant effect.
Pepsin is a digestive enzyme and one of the five primary components of the gastric juices you’ll find in your stomach. It’s responsible for assisting in the breakdown of proteins.¹² When building strength, we need the protein we ingest to break down properly for digestion if we want it to synthesize protein in our muscles.
Specifically, pepsin breaks down peptide bonds in proteins, reducing them to their amino acid constituents. Your body absorbs these amino acids and can use them to help rebuild muscle tissue after an intense workout. If you already eat a diet high in protein but often find it hard to put on muscle, additional pepsin might help you get more out of all those chicken breasts.
Trenorol should be safe for most healthy adults. However, we recommend consulting your doctor or dietician before beginning any new supplement to ensure it will work for you, your diet, and your fitness regimen. This is even more imperative if you suffer from any health conditions — particularly autoimmune issues — or are currently taking medication like blood thinners.
Let’s take a look at potential health risks associated with each ingredient:
β-sitosterol can cause GI discomfort and diarrhea in healthy individuals. Plant sterols, in general, have been studied for their positive influence on the immune system and as anti-inflammatory agents.¹³ But that elevated immune response can work against those with certain autoimmune disorders.
Samento inner bark poses a serious risk for miscarriage at high doses, as well as potentially dangerous immune responses in people with autoimmune diseases. It can also act as an anticoagulant, making it dangerous for those on blood thinners.¹⁴
Nettle has known anticoagulant effects. People on blood thinners should avoid nettle leaf extract, as the two can combine to cause exaggerated bruising or prevent sufficient wound healing.¹⁵
Pepsin is normally made in the body, and exogenous pepsin appears to be safe in doses commonly used to aid in digestion. However, it can cause GI problems such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, and there is a small risk of skin rash as a reaction.¹⁶
Obviously, compared to steroids, these ingredients are extremely safe, but compared to other similar workout supplements, we’d say they’re moderately safe. Comparable pre-workouts from companies like Transparent Labs, Animal, or Swolverine have variegated enough ingredients that they each come with specific risk factors. However, Trenorol’s use of multiple ingredients with anticoagulant properties creates a particular danger for one group — those on blood thinners — who might do better looking into other supplements.
If you notice anything akin to an adverse reaction — even if you got your doctor’s approval to take Trenorol — you should stop taking it for a while to see how you feel and report any noteworthy reactions to your doctor.
Trenorol is only available for purchase from the CrazyBulk website. CrazyBulk does not provide subscription options, but you can earn significant savings by buying in bulk. When you purchase the three-bottle bundle, one of those bottles will be free, dropping your price per serving by almost a dollar. Since a 60-day money-back guarantee protects your purchase, we recommend the bulk option.
You'll also receive a free downloadable fitness and nutrition guide with your order.
|Cost||Price per serving|
|Single purchase (1 bottle)||$64.99||$2.17|
|Buy Bulk & Save (3 bottles)||$129.99||$1.44|
Trenorol is one of the few pre-workout supplements claiming to reproduce the effects of Trenbolone and containing β-sitosterol as its primary ingredient. Trenorol's closest comparison is Brutal Force's TBULK, which boasts a similar ingredient profile and a lower price.
Below, we've created a side-by-side comparison of Trenorol with other popular pre-workout supplements so you can get a better idea of where it fits in with the competition. Note that all prices in this chart reflect single purchases and do not consider subscription or bulk discounts.
|30-day supply||Price per serving|
|Brutal Force TBULK||$59.99||$2.00|
|Thorne Amino Acid Complex||$47.96||$1.60|
|Purity Products Muscle Accelerator||$49.95||$1.70|
|Transparent Labs BULK||$49.99||$1.67|
CrazyBulk has a loyalty program that can help lower the costs of your supplements. Other companies might offer discounts when you sign up for an email list, but this approach is much more enticing and encourages repeat customers. It's a straightforward points system in which 100 points = $10 in credit that you can apply to any purchase. You can get points for the following:
Your points can expire if you don't use them for a full year.
CrazyBulk specializes in supplement stacks, selling these bundled products at a discounted cost. Stacks are often great choices for anyone looking to maximize their supplement benefits and focus on things like building muscle or cutting fat. Generally, stacks are designed to work concurrently, so you’ll consume everything in a stack at roughly the same time depending on dosing recommendations. However, not every stack (or product in each stack) has the same safety and efficacy, especially when combined.
CrazyBulk includes Trenorol in three of its stacks:
The Bulking Stack includes Trenorol, Testo-Max, DecaDuro, and D-Bal, which work together to supercharge your workouts and promote rapid muscle growth, fat burning, recovery, and strength.
This combination prioritizes performance in the gym over strictly cutting or bulking. It includes D-Bal, Testo-Max, Anvarol, and Trenorol.
This is CrazyBulk's largest stack. It includes five of the company's steroid alternatives (including Trenorol) alongside their dedicated testosterone booster.
There are three more stacks CrazyBulk offers that don’t include Trenorol:
This Cutting Stack bundle contains Anvarol, Clenbutrol, Winsol, and Testo-Max. Together, these products promote a lean physique and boost fat burning while preserving the muscle mass you've built up.
This Growth bundle includes Testo-Max, DecaDuro, D-Bal, HGH-X2, and Clenbutrol to boost the body's natural growth and testosterone production. It helps burn fat and build muscle while increasing energy and strength.
This Cutting bundle, featuring Clenbutrol, Anvarol, and Winsol, works to boost metabolism and fat burning, helping women bodybuilders train harder and achieve faster results.
We want to note that Clenbutrol isn't the same thing as clenbuterol (an asthma medication used unsafely by bodybuilders). However, Clenbutrol contains bitter orange, which we do not recommend consuming for safety reasons. While some studies have produced positive effects without adverse reactions, others associate bitter orange with risk of stroke¹⁷ and cardiovascular issues like angina.¹⁸
CrazyBulk supplies free worldwide shipping on all orders, regardless of size. The company advertises fast shipping for domestic orders in the continental U.S., but our experience was very different. CrazyBulk says orders are delivered within 24-48 hours. It's true that our orders shipped within 24-48 hours, but the actual shipping time averaged about a week.
CrazyBulk offers a 60-day money-back guarantee. That guarantee is designed to allow you 60 days to try the product and up to a week to return it after that. As long as you return any bottles (used or unused) within 67 days, the company will refund you 100% of your purchase price. However, you'll be responsible for any return shipping charges. Plenty of workout supplement companies offer little more than a 30-day return policy on unopened items, so the fact that CrazyBulk lets you try their products for two months and still get your money back is a definite advantage.
CrazyBulk provides retail supplements and not medical products or services. As such, they do not accept HSA, FSA, or health insurance payments for their products. This isn’t a knock on their offering, though, as very few nutritional supplements will ever get approval from an insurance company.
Given the pressure most people feel to look as fit as possible, it shouldn't be surprising that Trenorol has plenty of competition. There aren't many products out there claiming to replace Trenbolone directly, but there are other workout supplements that can help you with cutting, bulking, or a mix of both.
One company — Brutal Force — exists in almost perfect alignment with CrazyBulk in terms of cost and catalog. Both companies offer compelling alternatives to trenbolone, as well as options that can work in conjunction with those alternatives to maximize efficacy. But CrazyBulk’s other approaches, from muscle-building stacks and pre-workouts to a proper training diet, can all give Trenorol a run for its money.
Brutal Force manufactures TBULK, the most direct analog to Trenorol that you'll find. In fact, Brutal Force's entire product lineup mirrors CrazyBulk's in almost every way. Check out this chart comparing inventories:
|Sustanon testosterone alternative||$64.99||$59.99|
|Deca durabolin alternative||$64.99||$59.99|
|Nitric oxide booster||$64.99|
Across the board, Brutal Force has better prices than CrazyBulk. They also have a superior money-back guarantee, offering 100 days to CrazyBulk's 60. And the companies' respective ingredient lists aren't too different either.
|CrazyBulk Trenorol||Brutal Force TBULK|
|3, 3 Diindolylmethane||600mg||600mg|
|Nettle leaf extract||300mg|
|3, 3 Diindolylmethane||300mg|
So, which should you choose? If price and a money-back guarantee are your main concerns, TBULK is clearly the way to go. But Trenorol is only about $3-$5 more expensive, depending on the size of your order, and 60 days should be enough to tell whether it's working. With so many similarities between the companies and products, the question of efficacy comes down to nettle leaf extract vs. 3, 3 Diindolylmethane (DIM).
Research indicates that nettle leaf extract may help regulate your insulin response, which can prevent both crashes in the gym and the accumulation of adipose tissue in response to excess calories.¹⁹ That makes it ideal for anyone who lacks endurance while weight training or who carefully calculates their calories in and out but still manages to put on fat.
By contrast, research into DIM has mostly focused on its role in protecting against breast cancer and mitigating the effects of radiation therapy in cancer patients. The mechanisms that DIM activates directly involve the body's resistance to oxidative stress, leading some in the fitness community to theorize that DIM can help the body recover more quickly after workouts.²⁰ Its association with cardiovascular health doesn't hurt, either.²¹ Ultimately, Brutal Force's TBULK may be better for those who struggle to recover in time for their next workout.
SARM stands for selective androgen receptor modulator.²² In practice, SARMs change the way your body regulates the flow of certain hormones related to muscle growth, fat loss, and endurance. There are a few issues with SARMs, though.
Firstly, they aren't approved for human consumption. You can buy them from research suppliers, where they're labeled specifically as research chemicals, but consuming them is extremely risky due in part to low purity and safety standards.²³ Secondly, SARMs are banned by many anti-doping agencies and competitive leagues. And finally, SARMs lack enough research for us to consider them safe. Even if you got pure, clean SARMs from a reputable source, their long-term effects are still a mystery and not worth the risk.
CrazyBulk and Brutal Force offer what they call SARM alternatives — tailored supplements designed to emulate the effects of specific SARMs popular in the bodybuilding community. Brutal Force carries two SARMs alternatives that CrazyBulk does not.
Here's a quick breakdown of SARM alternatives from CrazyBulk and Brutal Force:
|CrazyBulk ($69.99/bottle)||Brutal Force ($59.99/bottle)|
The ingredients in the two companies' SARMs alternatives are extremely similar, making Brutal Force the more economical choice. But if you want to stack your SARMs, CrazyBulk is the better option. That's because Brutal Force offers one 3-SARM stack and one 4-SARM stack, while CrazyBulk offers two 4-SARM stacks and one 5-SARM stack.
Trenorol’s dosing guidelines advise you to take the supplement just before a workout and to take it in the morning on any off days. That schedule makes it closer to a pre-workout than anything else, and it warrants a look at other available pre-workout supplements to ensure that Trenorol is your best option.
A pre-workout is essentially any supplement designed to have its effects set in shortly after consumption and for those effects to give you added strength, stamina, or focus during bouts of exercise. Common pre-workout ingredients include:
Caffeine is well-known for its ability to improve alertness, energy, and athletic performance.²⁴ It’s especially useful in a pre-workout if you exercise in the morning. But if you workout later in the evening or you’re sensitive to caffeine, you should seek out non-stimulant pre-workouts.
Research suggests that creatine supplementation can help prevent ATP depletion during workouts, providing more cellular energy during anaerobic exercise.²⁵
Carnitine appears capable of enhancing bloodflow and oxygen supply to the muscles during exercise, and it may protect against exercise- or age-related muscle loss.²⁶
Arginine is often associated with nitric oxide mediation, causing vasodilation and improving antioxidant action that can improve athletic performance and recovery.²⁷
Citrulline predominantly serves as a precursor to arginine, increasing the amount of serum arginine in the blood and providing the same results.²⁸
An analysis of ten scientific papers studying the effects of taurine on athletic performance found increased lipid metabolism and decreased oxidative stress during and after workouts.²⁹ However, the average dose used in these studies was far higher than what’s typically found in supplements.
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) can help reduce muscle soreness in resistance-trained individuals,³⁰ but claims of increased muscle synthesis require more research.³¹
The body uses B vitamins in important energy pathways and as a critical part of tissue repair — like the kind your muscles need after a workout.³²
Many people may prefer pre-workouts to Trenorol simply thanks to the addition of caffeine. And even non-stimulant options offer blends that may provide more benefit to more users by virtue of higher ingredient counts and more generous doses. And given Trenorol’s safety profile for pregnant or nursing women, people on blood thinners, and those with autoimmune disorders, it may prove inferior to several pre-workout options from companies like Transparent Labs or Swolverine, two top names in the space.
While some people might be content to add a protein powder to their diets when they start hitting the gym on a regular basis, this is insufficient for many seeking real results. Sometimes struggles in the gym are related to certain vitamin or mineral deficiencies, and other times there are genetic predispositions toward things like catabolism occurring at a lower-than-average heart rate. (Catabolism is essentially your body using your muscles for fuel instead of your fat during excessively strenuous activity.)
Various supplements can address these deficiencies or bolster your body against certain genetic predispositions. Muscle-building stacks can certainly do that, as many contain multiple vitamins, minerals, and amino acids that can protect against muscle loss and promote fat burning. Some can even promote muscle growth.
Muscle-building stack achieve this by combining several products, including:
Here’s a quick look at some of our top muscle-building stacks:
|Cost||Number of supplements in stack||Protein type|
|Transparent Labs Muscle Building Essentials||$183||4||Whey|
|Animal “The Animal”||$121||3||Whey|
Muscle-building stacks are particularly ideal for anyone who’s already combining things like daily multivitamins or pre-workouts with a protein powder or recovery drink. Instead of buying these components separately, you purchase them as a set at a reduced price, saving you money and potentially maximizing your results. It can also theoretically increase the safety of combining supplements by having them all come from one manufacturer who designs them to work together. Combining supplements from different companies runs the risk of over- or under-supplementing, which could lead to adverse reactions or reduced efficacy.
While supplements may give many people an edge in the gym, the truth is that what you eat and how and when you eat it plays a bigger role in your physical fitness than any supplement could. The problem for most people is that the kind of diet required to achieve superhero-level gains and leanness is:
You can watch 100 videos by personal trainers to the stars detailing the ins and outs of these diets. They tend to revolve around the same few key foods:
There are certainly other foods occasionally included, but these are at the heart of it, and you'll need to consume about 4,000-6,000 calories daily from those simple foods alone.³³ A typical 5oz chicken breast contains only 230 calories, so you'll have to force-feed yourself around 2-3lbs of chicken every day to attain those calorie goals. You’ll also need to find the right balance of macronutrients to optimize results.³⁴
If you choose the dietary route, we highly suggest consulting with a licensed nutritionist and finding ways to diversify your calorie intake that won't sacrifice your goals or make your life miserable. Remember, you don't have to save the world or take your shirt off on-camera.
 Grand View Research. (n.d.). Pre-workout Supplements Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Form (Powder, Capsule, Ready To Drink), By Distribution Channel (Online, Offline), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2020 - 2027. https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/pre-workout-supplements-market
 Nia, K. S., Rahmani, F., Bakhtavar, H. E., Aghdam, Y. H., & Balafar, M. (2014). A Young Man with Myocardial Infarction due to Trenbolone Acetate; a Case Report. Emergency, 2(1), 43-45. https://doi.org/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614617/
 NIDA. (2021, April 12). What are the side effects of anabolic steroid misuse?. Retrieved October 28, 2022 from https://nida.nih.gov/publications/research-reports/steroids-other-appearance-performance-enhancing-drugs-apeds/what-are-side-effects-anabolic-steroid-misuse
 Lomenick, B., Shi, H., Huang, J., & Chen, C. (2015). Identification and Characterization of β-Sitosterol Target Proteins. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 25(21), 4976. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.03.007
 Cheng, Y., Chen, Y., Li, J., Qu, H., Zhao, Y., Wen, C., & Zhou, Y. (2019). Dietary β-Sitosterol Improves Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Antioxidant Status, and Mitochondrial Biogenesis of Breast Muscle in Broilers. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(3), 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030071
 Wilt, T., Ishani, A., MacDonald, R., Stark, G., Mulrow, C., & Lau, J. (2000). Beta-sitosterols for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 1999(2), CD001043. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001043
 Araujo, C. C., Feitosa, K. B., Murata, G. M., Furigo, I. C., Teixeira, S. A., Lucena, C. F., Ribeiro, L. M., Muscará, M. N., Costa, K. P., José Donato, J., Bordin, S., Curi, R., & Carvalho, R. O. (2017). Uncaria tomentosa improves insulin sensitivity and inflammation in experimental NAFLD. Scientific Reports, 8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29044-y
 Cat's Claw. (2019). In LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
 Cat’s Claw. (2020, May). National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/cats-claw
 Chrubasik, J. E., Roufogalis, B. D., Wagner, H., & Chrubasik, S. (2007). A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 14(7-8), 568–579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2007.03.014
 Kregiel, D., Pawlikowska, E., & Antolak, H. (2018). Urtica spp.: Ordinary Plants with Extraordinary Properties. Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry, 23(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071664
 Heda R., Toro F., Tombazzi C.R. (2022, May 8). Physiology, Pepsin. StatPearls [Internet]. Retrieved October 28, 2022 from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537005/
 Bouic PJ. The role of phytosterols and phytosterolins in immune modulation: a review of the past 10 years. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2001 Nov;4(6):471-475. DOI: 10.1097/00075197-200111000-00001. PMID: 11706278.
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