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Bullying Prevention Resources

Whether you’re a student, teacher, or parent, we’ve got resources you can add to your toolkit to help stop bullying — and prevent it from happening in the first place.

Last Updated: Apr 29, 2022
Bullying Prevention Resources

In 2019, 22% of teenage students reported being bullied.¹ Those who’ve experienced bullying know it’s no cakewalk: victims of bullying are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and poor adjustment, along with an increased risk of substance abuse and academic problems.² Whether the bullying happens directly, indirectly, or online, there are serious and long-lasting consequences to its social isolation and harassment.

Here, we provide facts and resources so you can identify what bullying is, where it happens, and what power you have to prevent it.

Jump to:

What is bullying?
Who gets bullied?
Who bullies?
Where does bullying occur?
The impact of bullying
Policies and legislation about bullying
What’s the best strategy to prevent bullying?
Things you can do to help
Organizations working to stop bullying
References

What is bullying?

At its simplest, bullying is aggressive behavior from one person (or a group of people) in a position of power toward someone in a perceived “lesser” position. It’s meant to degrade, insult, humiliate, or embarrass the target and is almost always an ongoing pattern of behavior. Bullying can include (but isn’t limited to)³:

  • Teasing
  • Name-calling
  • Taunting
  • Threatening harm
  • Inappropriate sexual comments
  • Leaving someone out on purpose
  • Telling others not to be friends or interact with someone
  • Spreading rumors
  • Embarrassing someone with purpose
  • Hitting
  • Kicking
  • Pinching
  • Spitting
  • Tripping
  • Pushing
  • Taking or breaking someone’s things
  • Rude or cruel hand gestures

The most common methods of bullying include rumors (13%), taunting or name-calling (13%), minor physical violence (such as being pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on) (5%), and exclusion (5%).⁴

Bullying has a significant overlap with the concepts of discrimination and harassment, but not every example fits these descriptions. Harassment and discrimination occur when someone is the target of poor treatment, specifically because of their personal attributes (such as a disabled person being the target of frequent taunts about what they can and can’t do because of their disability).

Some organizations define bullying as only occurring among school-aged children; other definitions stretch into adulthood and beyond. We’ll discuss bullying primarily among children in this guide, but keep in mind that bullying is something that happens to adults, too.

Who gets bullied?

Since bullying displays power dynamics that cause harm, it makes sense that people in lower social strata are the most vulnerable. Some comparisons between student demographics illuminate who’s more likely to be affected by bullying.¹

  • Male students are bullied less than female students (19% versus 25.5%).
  • Mixed-race students are the most likely to be bullied (37.1%), followed by white students (24.6%).
  • Middle school students are twice as likely as high school students to be bullied.
  • Both public and private school students experience about the same amount of bullies (about 22%).
  • Students at rural schools are slightly more likely to experience bullying than in city, town, or suburban schools (27.7% versus 22.4%, 21.7%, and 20.5%, respectively).

Students who don’t fit in with a school’s social hierarchy are the most likely to be bullied. Depending on the school, this can include LGBT+ (or those perceived as LGBT+), non-white, and disabled students. 40% of students who are LGBT+ report being bullied.⁵ Students from low-income backgrounds may also be prime targets for bullying. A student doesn’t have to be disadvantaged to be bullied. However, there is no real way to tell when a student will or won’t be bullied other than that other students believe they “stand out.”

Who bullies?

We don’t know exactly what leads a person to become a bully. Researchers consider many theoretical frameworks, including family systems, peer socialization, and developmental psychopathology.⁶ Other factors that are generally common in bullies include:

  • Aggression
  • Frustration
  • Low parental involvement
  • Issues at home
  • Difficulty following rules
  • A positive view of violence
  • Association with other bullies

Of course, you should take this information with a grain of salt. Just because a student doesn’t display some or all of these traits doesn’t mean they’re not a bully, and a student displaying these traits isn’t automatically going to start acting cruelly toward others.

While we don’t know all of the reasons why someone might bully, contemporary research has identified two personality types that are more likely to predict bullying behavior.

Socially powerful

Archetypically, people in positions of social power are more likely to be bullies. These are people with strong social networks: think of the jock with the football team on his side. The difference between a bully and a non-bully popular student is that a bully is likely overly concerned with their social status and has dominating tendencies. This means they will do anything, including being destructive⁷ and acting against their moral code⁸, to uphold their social standing.

Socially isolated

On the other hand, socially isolated people are equally likely to become bullies. Bullying behavior in this scenario is often an attempt to hoist the bully into a higher position of social power by belittling others.⁹ Sometimes, they have been bullied themselves.¹⁰ Whether they’ve been socially ostracized and isolated from natural social stratification or bullying, they are often:

  • Depressed or anxious
  • Less involved in classroom learning if they are a student
  • Easily pressured by peers
  • Struggling to identify and relate to the emotions of others

Where does bullying occur?

According to a 2019 study by the National Center for Educational Statistics, the most common places for a student to be bullied are⁴:

  • The hallway or stairwell at school (43%)
  • Inside the classroom (42%)
  • In the cafeteria (27%)
  • Outside on the school grounds, like a playground (22%)
  • Online (15%)
  • In the bathroom or locker room (12%)
  • On the schoolbus (8%)

Below, you’ll find more detail about these places, as well as bullying at home.

In school

School is the most common place for a child or teenager to be bullied. More than two in five students report being bullied on school grounds (in hallways, stairwells, or classrooms). About one in four students report being bullied in large congregate settings like the cafeteria or the playground. Transitional areas, where students aren’t watched closely, are the most common for physical or active social bullying behavior. In contrast, things like purposefully leaving a student out occur more often in a classroom setting.

The classroom is one of the more painful and adversarial places for students to be bullied. Students who are bullied in classrooms report feeling the most unsafe.¹¹ The teacher’s relationship with a student has a significant impact across the board: students who feel rejected by their teachers are more likely to engage in bullying behavior¹², and students with close relationships with their teachers feel most compelled to defend a peer who’s being bullied.¹³ When a teacher intervenes, students report that bullying stops or is reduced two-thirds of the time.¹⁴ The way a teacher engages with their students and cultivates a positive relationship with them has a long-lasting impact on their mental well-being.

Outside the classroom, hallways and stairwells are popular places to see bullying. These spaces give students relatively large amounts of autonomy for a few minutes without much supervision. Some studies have even used GIS (Geographic Information System, a type of mapping often used in ecological studies) to map where bullying occurs most often in schools, with hallways and stairwells overwhelmingly represented.¹⁵

While some schools have tried to counter this by hiring school resource officers (SROs) or security guards, they have little effect on bullying.¹⁶ Since teachers with good student relationships can be one of the most effective resources to combat bullying – and SROs aren’t – having a non-punitive or discipline-only relationship with students may hinder attempts to stop bullying.

Online

Cyberbullying was the subject of many nail-biting advertising campaigns and fueled concerned parents’ worries when the Internet became more available for everyone to use. However, studies have proven that cyberbullying isn’t as much of a concern as predicted.

Since most social media platforms and online gaming communities require users to be at least 13 years old, many of those in the middle school age range don’t have as many cyberbullying opportunities. Cyberbullying peaks around ages 14-15 (at 27.2% and 27.7%, respectively) before dropping off dramatically. Only 16.2% of 17-year-olds reported being cyberbullied in the last month.¹⁷

Across the Internet, anywhere from 20% to 40% of all users report having been cyberbullied at one point. However, 71% of male students and 74% of female students report being bullied at least once in their lives.¹⁸ 90% of people experiencing cyberbullying are also being bullied face-to-face.¹⁹ Considering that the Internet has been a central facet of teens’ lives since the early 2000s, it’s likely that cyberbullying isn’t a distinct type of bullying but rather a different location that bullies inhabit.

Anonymity online can spur increased rates of cyberbullying. The more anonymity a potential bully feels, the more likely they will cyberbully others.²⁰ While complete anonymity isn’t the only factor at play — being untraceable won’t necessarily turn a gentle, mature teenager into a raging bully — it can influence how everyone uses these platforms. Plus, degrees of separation from bullying online lessens the chance that a person will intervene; re-shared posts that feature bullying are more susceptible to the bystander effect than original content.²¹

For all its problems, social media can also be a place of healing for those who’ve been bullied. A July 2021 study showed that tweets about bullying mostly involved victims sharing their experiences and coming together to find “cathartic discussion and support” rather than a continuation of bullying behavior.²² Of course, bullies won’t post about how they’re bullying other people. But having an open community space to build social support can only help victims.

At home

Siblings can bully one another with the same ferocity as unrelated peers. Up to 40% of students experience sibling bullying, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression.²³ Children learn to solve conflicts by getting into them in safe environments, but sibling bullying is different from the typical squabbling and strife of two children raised together.

Sibling bullying often comes from a power dynamic difference (the older sibling bullies a younger one) or parental favoritism (the favorite child leverages that power over an unfavored child). Children whose siblings had physically bullied them before age nine experienced the most distress in a 2013 study, with all other kinds of aggression uniquely predicting worse mental health outcomes.²⁴ It is still an understudied phenomenon, but it plays as much of a negative role in children’s lives as peer bullying

The impact of bullying

On victims

Bullying causes massive disruptions to a person’s physical and mental health. There is a cascade of potential complications when it happens to a student.

If you are experiencing suicidal thoughts, you aren’t alone. Reach out to a crisis line (text HOME to 741741 or call 1-800-273-8255), a friend, or your nearest emergency department.

Depression

Bullying victims have a significantly higher risk of depression compared to their non-bullied peers. Those who are cyberbullied are even more likely to be depressed than those bullied in person.²⁵ This risk of depression stays high across the lifespan, with adults bullied between ages 15 and 18 having the highest likelihood of depression by the time they turn 28.²⁶

Anxiety

Bullying increases the risk of developing an anxiety disorder two to three times, even when the victim is already predisposed to having one.²⁷ Like with depression, these students are much more likely to have multiple mental health diagnoses when they’re adults.

Suicide

Suicidal thoughts and ideation are considerably higher in bullying victims than in students who have no experience with bullying. This is an extreme but not uncommon reaction to bullying (to the point that there have been Disney Channel movies made to help prevent this situation). In fact, the more bullying affects a student’s life, the more likely they are to experience suicidal ideation or attempt suicide.²⁸ Depression also plays a role in suicidal thoughts, particularly in female students, who are more likely to experience suicidal thoughts from in-person and cyberbullying if they’re also depressed.²⁹

Substance abuse

Students who have been bullied are at a higher risk of substance abuse. This is separate from their risk of depression, so even those who aren’t depressed may still self-medicate with alcohol and other intoxicants.³⁰

Poor school adjustment

If a student is bullied at school, it makes sense that they disengage from learning. After all, how can you focus in a place where people beat you up or spread nasty rumors? Bully victims often have high levels of fear in classroom settings, which lead to disengagement from the material they’re taught. They are less likely to succeed in school, having lower test scores and grades than peers who aren’t bullied.³¹ 70% of students agree that being cyberbullied negatively affects their performance in school.³² And those who perform poorly in school due to bullying often have a more challenging time adapting to adult roles, such as forming lasting relationships and becoming economically independent.³³

On bullies

Students don’t become bullies for no reason. Youth who bully others often struggle to find effective coping mechanisms for bad feelings and instead take those feelings out on others. Externalizing coping mechanisms might also look like substance abuse, which bullies are significantly more likely to develop in adulthood than their peers who aren’t involved in bullying.³⁴ Boys who bully others are more likely to get involved in non-alcohol substance abuse, including nicotine, marijuana, and “harder” drugs.³⁵

On bully-victims

Bully-victims are bullied and bully others; they are impacted most heavily by bullying in their lives. Bullying victims who experience higher levels of hostility are more likely to become bully-victims.³⁶ Sometimes, the bullying and victimization coincide; other times, they are bullied early in life and become a bully later. It isn’t a particularly common outcome, but either way, bully-victims experience the most serious consequences and have the greatest risk of mental health and behavioral problems. They experience the psychosocial impacts of bullying victims at higher rates and with more extreme outcomes.

Policies and legislation about bullying

All 50 states have passed anti-bullying laws. There isn’t any federal legislation about anti-bullying, but there has historically been federal guidance suggesting that states adopt such laws.³⁷ If bullying overlaps with discrimination or harassment (such as if a student is bullied because of their race or gender), they have recourse through federal laws.

These state laws provide the most direct action that protects students. These laws cover:

  • Criminal sanctions: Are violent and harassing behaviors — physically, emotionally, and electronically — punishable under the law?
  • School sanctions: Can a school discipline a student participating in bullying?
  • School policy: Are all school districts legally required to have a bullying policy, including both an identification program and disciplinary measures?
  • Off-campus: Are schools allowed to discipline a student who’s done something away from the school that disrupts school learning? Examples of bullying behaviors covered by off-campus legislation include cyberbullying, cyberstalking, and harassment.

The chart below sketches out each state’s current bullying laws. The scope and depth of the state’s laws vary, so check your state’s specifics.

  Criminal sanctions? School sanctions? School policies? Off-campus?
Alabama
Yes
 
Yes
Yes
Alaska
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Arizona
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Arkansas
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
California
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Colorado
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Connecticut
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Delaware
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Florida
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Georgia
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Hawaii
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Idaho
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Illinois
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Indiana
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Iowa
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Kansas
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Kentucky
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Louisiana
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Maine  
Yes
Yes
Yes
Maryland
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Massachusetts
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Michigan
Yes
 
Yes
Yes
Minnesota  
Yes
Yes
Yes
Mississippi
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Missouri
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Montana
Yes
 
Yes
Yes
Nebraska  
Yes
Yes
Yes
Nevada
Yes
 
Yes
 
New Hampshire    
Yes
Yes
New Jersey
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
New Mexico  
Yes
Yes
Yes
New York
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
North Carolina
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
North Dakota
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Ohio
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Oklahoma
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Oregon
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Pennsylvania
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rhode Island
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
South Carolina
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
South Dakota
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Tennessee
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Texas
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Utah
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Vermont
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Virginia
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Washington
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
West Virginia
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Wisconsin
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Wyoming  
Yes
Yes
 
Wyoming  
Yes
Yes
 

What’s the best strategy to prevent bullying?

Much like there isn’t one kind of person that will always become a bully, there isn’t one best strategy to prevent bullying worldwide (or even in your neighborhood). Some tasks, tricks, and tools help more than others.

Evidence-based bullying prevention programs are some of the most effective. They arm teachers with specific skills for intervention and provide students with both learning opportunities and clear, simple definitions and rules around bullying. Many of these programs are aimed at elementary school students, which gives them an anti-bullying framework before the highest rates of bullying occur in middle school.

Three evidence-based programs are notable for their scientific and practical acclaim:

Steps to Respect

Steps to Respect is designed for grades 3-6 by the Committee for Children. This program shows a demonstrable decrease in bullying cases when properly used. The organization has also created Second Step and the Bullying Prevention Unit, further evidence-based bullying prevention programs designed for elementary school students.

Olweus Bullying Prevention Program

The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program was developed by (and named after) Dr. Dan Olweus, one of the top experts on bullying worldwide who literally wrote some of the contemporary definitions of bullying. This program can be used with students of any age. Long-term studies of over 30,000 students have shown that it significantly and consistently decreases the rate of every kind of bullying.

KiVa

While KiVa is more common in Europe (having been developed at the University of Turku, Finland), its three-pronged prevention, intervention, and monitoring tools have shown great effectiveness. One study found it cut the rate of bullying up to 92%, improved students’ feelings about their peers, and improved the long-term outcomes of victims’ mental health.

A few studies break down how effectively school bullying prevention programs work. The most recent ones have noted that anti-bullying programs reduced bullying actions by 20% and victimization by about 15%.³⁸ However, they don’t know exactly how or why these programs work. Earlier studies by the Congressional Research Service suggest that anti-bullying programs can dampen up to 25% of bullying in schools. Using more specific and research-backed programs may help to improve the overall quality of anti-bullying education and decrease the rate of bullying in schools.

Things you can do to help

Bullying prevention programs work best when you get ahead of bullying; applying a prevention program to students who are already bullying others doesn’t discourage them as much as it does when you set rules and expectations beforehand. Since most bullying starts in late elementary or middle school, beginning anti-bullying education early in elementary school is often the best option.³⁹

Parental engagement and academic discipline discourage bullies more than they help victims.⁴⁰ The most important thing you can do to support bullying victims is to provide a safe space for them to talk. Knowing that they have social support — whether from a peer, teacher, or parent — can help make all the difference in a victim’s day. Encouraging a positive school climate can also help protect students from bullying behaviors.⁴¹

85% of bullying events have bystanders. When bystanders try to stand up for the victim, the victim reports feeling better about the incident, yet bystanders only intervene 10% of the time.⁴² Encouraging bystander intervention can help snuff out the social isolation that drives bullying.

Some other practices and techniques that help include:

  • Setting distinct, easy-to-understand definitions of bullying
  • Ensuring that students and peers know that bullying is not — and will never be — tolerated, with clear rules and expectations around discipline
  • Having open discussions about bullying with students, parents, and school staff
  • Respecting students’ anonymity when they ask for it
  • Trying different approaches to find out what works best for your school

Organizations working to stop bullying

There are dozens of organizations in the United States that work to educate people about bullying and prevent it from happening. We’ve cataloged many of them here so that you can find the right fit for your experiences.

U.S. federal organizations

Education and advocacy organizations

Other organizations

References

[1] NCES Fast Facts: Bullying. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2021). Retrieved April 28, 2022, from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=719

[2] Rivara, F., & Menestrel, S. L. (2016). 4. Consequences of Bullying Behavior. In Preventing Bullying through Science, Policy, and Practice. essay, National Academies Press.

[3] Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (ASPA). (2021, November 5). What is bullying? StopBullying.gov. Retrieved April 28, 2022, from https://www.stopbullying.gov/bullying/what-is-bullying

[4] National Center for Education Statistics. (2019). (rep.). Results from the 2017 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (pp. 1–61). Washington, DC.

[5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, September 2). Fast Fact: Preventing Bullying. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/bullyingresearch/fastfact.html

[6] Thomas, H.J., Connor, J.P. & Scott, J.G. (2018). Why do children and adolescents bully their peers? A critical review of key theoretical frameworks. Social Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiology, 53, 437–451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-017-1462-1

[7] Harvey, M. G., Buckley, M. R., Heames, J. T., Zinko, R., Brouer, R. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2007). A bully as an archetypal destructive leader. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(2), 117–129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1071791907308217

[8] Runions, K.C., Shaw, T., Bussey, K. Thornberg, R., Salmivalli, C., & Cross, D. S. (2019). Moral disengagement of pure bullies and bully/victims: Shared and distinct mechanisms. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 48, 1835–1848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01067-2

[9] Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (ASPA). (2021, June 2). Who is at risk? StopBullying.gov. Retrieved April 28, 2022, from https://www.stopbullying.gov/bullying/at-risk

[10] Baek S. B. (2014). Psychopathology of social isolation. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 10(3), 143–147. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.140132

[11] Perkins, H.W., Perkins, J.M. & Craig, D.W. (2014), No Safe Haven: Locations of Harassment and Bullying Victimization in Middle Schools. Journal of School Health, 84, 810-818. Retrieved April 28, 2022, from https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12208

[12] Longobardi, C., Iotti, N. O., Jungert, T., & Settanni, M. (2017). Student-teacher relationships and bullying: The role of Student Social Status. Journal of Adolescence, 63(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.12.001

[13] Iotti, N.O., Thornberg, R., Longobardi, C., & Jungert, T. (2020). Early adolescents’ emotional and behavioral difficulties, student-teacher relationships, and motivation to defend in bullying incidents. Child Youth Care Forum, 49, 59–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-019-09519-3

[14] Rigby, K. (2020). How teachers deal with cases of bullying at school: What victims say. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072338

[15] Migliaccio, T., Raskauskas, J., & Schmidtlein, M. (2017). Mapping the landscapes of bullying. Learning Environments Research, 20(3), 365–382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-017-9229-x

[16] Broll, R., & Lafferty, R. (2018). Guardians of the hallways? School resource officers and bullying. Safer Communities, 17(4), 202–212. https://doi.org/10.1108/sc-06-2018-0018

[17] Hinduja, S. (2022, March 8). Cyberbullying in 2021 by age, gender, sexual orientation, and race. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved April 28, 2022, from https://cyberbullying.org/cyberbullying-statistics-age-gender-sexual-orientation-race

[18] Patchin, J. W. (2016, October 10). New National Bullying and Cyberbullying Statistics. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved April 28, 2022, from https://cyberbullying.org/new-national-bullying-cyberbullying-data

[19] Wolke, D., & Lereya, S. T. (2015). Long-term effects of bullying. Archives of disease in childhood, 100(9), 879–885. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306667

[20] Barlett, C. P., Gentile, D. A., & Chew, C. (2016). Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 5(2), 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000055

[21] Kazerooni, F., Taylor, S. H., Bazarova, N. N., & Whitlock, J. (2018, May). Cyberbullying bystander intervention: The number of offenders and retweeting predict likelihood of helping a cyberbullying victim. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 23(3), 146-162. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcmc/zmy005

[22] Sainju, K. D., Mishra, N., Kuffour, A., & Young, L. (2021). Bullying discourse on Twitter: An examination of bully-related tweets using supervised machine learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106735

[23] Wolke, D., Tippett, N., & Dantchev, S. (2015, October). Bullying in the family: Sibling bullying. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(10), 917-929.https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00262-X

[24] Tucker, C. J., Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., & Shattuck, A. (2013, July). Association of sibling aggression with child and adolescent mental health. Pediatrics, 132(1), 79-84. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-3801

[25] Wang, J., Nansel, T. R., & Iannotti, R. J. (2011, April). Cyber and traditional bullying: Differential association with depression. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(4), 415-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.07.012

[26] Winding, T. N., Skouenborg, L. A., Mortensen, V. L., & Andersen, J. H. (2020, November 19). Is bullying in adolescence associated with the development of depressive symptoms in adulthood?. BMC Psychology, 8, 122. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00491-5

[27] Stapinski, L. A., Bowes, L., Wolke, D., Pearson, R. M., Mahedy, L., Button, K. S., Lewis, G., & Araya, R. (2014). Peer victimization during adolescence and risk for anxiety disorders in adulthood: a prospective cohort study. Depression and Anxiety, 31(7), 574–582. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22270

[28] Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2019). Connecting adolescent suicide to the severity of bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of School Violence, 18(3), 333-346. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2018.1492417

[29] Bauman, S., Toomey, R. B., & Walker, J. L. (2013, April). Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 341-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.001

[30] Davis, J. P., Dumas, T. M., Merrin, G. J., Espelage, D. L., Tan, K., Madden, D., & Hong, J. S. (2018). Examining the pathways between bully victimization, depression, academic achievement, and problematic drinking in adolescence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32(6), 605–616. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000394

[31] Juvonen, J., Wang, Y., & Espinoza, G. (2011, February 1). Bullying experiences and compromised academic performance across middle school grades. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(1), 152-173. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431610379415

[32] Qais, F. (2011, December). Cyberbullying and academic performance. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, 1(1), 23-30. Retrieved April 28, 2022 from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED574784.pdf

[33] Wolke, D., & Lereya, S. T. (2015). Long-term effects of bullying. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 100(9), 879–885. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306667

[34] Vrijen, C., Wiertsema, M., Ackermans, M. A., Ploeg, R., & Kretschmer, T. (2021, March). Childhood and adolescent bullying perpetration and later substance use: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 147(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-034751

[35] Luukkonen, A., Riala, K., Hakko, H., & Räsänen, P. (2010). Bullying behaviour and substance abuse among underage psychiatric inpatient adolescents. European Psychiatry, 25(7), 382-389. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.12.002

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