If incontinence is an issue you struggle with, you’re not alone. In the United States, urinary incontinence affects over 33 million adult men and women,1 with about 8.4% suffering from bowel incontinence.2 And according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2007-2010, mixed incontinence (both urinary and bowel) affects 10.6% of noninstitutionalized older Americans.3
Today, a multitude of online shops offer convenient subscriptions and delivery of personal care items, such as incontinence underwear. This can prevent any embarrassment from buying them in person and provide assurance that you won’t run out. However, most subscription options are through third-party vendors (like CareWell or America’s Diaper Club) that sell multiple brands of incontinence products at varying prices. Only a handful of manufacturers themselves offer subscriptions — a couple of which include brands like NorthShore Care Supply and Because Market.
This review examines the latter, Because Market. While the company is best known for incontinence products, it also offers other personal health items like vitamins, mobility aids, and at-home testing kits. If you’re interested in learning more, we assessed Because Market to provide you with all the necessary details to help you decide if this online marketplace suits your personal health requirements.
If incontinence affects your daily life, we recommend Because Market for its convenience, discretion, and fair prices. Because Market’s subscription program ensures that you get all your essential personal care items each month, eliminating any concerns about running out. We’ve conducted hands-on testing of the brand’s incontinence items and found them to be highly absorbent, even at the maximum fluid capacity recommended by the company. Additionally, try-on testers were impressed by the products’ comfort, fit, near invisibility under clothes, and silence.
Over the past 20 years, Innerbody Research has assisted millions of readers in making better-informed choices about staying healthy and improving their well-being.
We research and assess every health service or product we review to bring you an unbiased evaluation rooted in up-to-date health standards and medical research. For this review of Because Market, we applied the experience and knowledge we gained after spending a combined total of over 100 hours researching and testing incontinence products across the competitive landscape. Our testing process included liquid-volume absorbency tests and try-ons with a team ranging in age from their 20s to their 50s. Testers rated Because Market’s incontinence products based on comfort, fit, security, invisibility, and silence.
Additionally, as with all health-related content on our website, this review was thoroughly vetted by one or more members of our Medical Review Board for accuracy.
Outside of hands-on testing, we assessed Because Market based on five criteria — efficacy, cost, convenience, options, and sustainability — derived from some key questions:
Our focus for this analysis is mainly on Because Market’s incontinence products since that’s what the brand is most well-known for. We’ll delve into the company’s other personal health offerings later on.
Because Market’s incontinence products held up very well under our liquid-volume stress testing. The chart below details the recommended limits versus the testing results per product we examined.
|Recommended limit||Test results|
|Because Market Premium Maximum Plus Underwear for Men||4 cups||Dry at the max limit and up to about 4.5 cups; no leaks|
|Because Market Premium Maximum Plus Underwear for Women||4 cups||Same as the men’s: remained dry at max recommended capacity and up to 4.5 cups without leaks|
|Because Market Premium Guards for Men||2+ cups||Dry to the touch and no leaks up to 3 cups|
|Because Premium Pads for Women (Moderate)||1 cup||Able to push to 1.5 cups while staying dry and not leaking|
As evident by our testing results, Because Market’s incontinence products met and even exceeded absorbency expectations. Our testing found similar results with another (albeit more expensive) brand, Tranquility. We appreciate that these products can actually deliver more to a user than expected — this is especially valuable when dealing with health concerns like incontinence, where more protection is always better.
Incontinence underwear can be really pricey, but Because Market offers some of the better pricing we’ve seen. It’s not the cheapest you’ll find (brands like Prevail, Tena, and Depend usually come out on top in that regard), but when you take into consideration the subscription option, discreet delivery, and overall effectiveness of the products, a slightly higher cost may seem more worthwhile.
The prices of Because Market’s incontinence products will change based on what size you purchase — the smaller the size, the lesser the cost. This is common among incontinence brands, and the price difference isn’t massive, but it’s good to keep this information in mind. For example, a one-time purchase of 20 pieces of Premium Maximum Plus Underwear for Women in small/medium will run you $16, while size XL costs $20.66. The difference in pricing could be where the potential value of Because Market’s subscription really adds up for some people.
If you sign up for Because Market’s Subscribe & Save option, you’ll receive 10% off each purchase you make through the brand’s website. The products you choose will be delivered to your door in discreet packaging each month. You can change, skip, or cancel your subscription whenever you want without being charged any fees.
Many products offered are also eligible for FSA/HSA reimbursement; you can tell a product is applicable if the page has a small, white “FSA/HSA Eligible” label in the upper left-hand corner of the product pictures. All of Because Market’s incontinence protection products are eligible for FSA/HSA reimbursement.
Additionally, Because Market offers free shipping on orders over $25, and if you don’t hit that threshold, standard shipping costs $2.99. If your order is heading to Alaska or Hawaii, you’ll be charged an additional $12.99.
Whether you want to purchase a product once or subscribe, the ordering process on Because Market’s website is very straightforward. You choose your product, quantity, size, and color (if available), then add the order to your cart, and checkout.
If you choose to subscribe, that’s when Because Market becomes particularly convenient. Having your personal care items (incontinence underwear, vitamins, skincare, and more) delivered discreetly to your door could be an ideal solution for those who care for a loved one, have mobility issues, or feel embarrassed buying those products in person.
Special Offer: Take 40% Off Your First Subscription
It’s also nice not to worry about running out of what you need at inconvenient times since you can adjust your subscription deliveries as necessary to ensure it never happens. NorthShore Care Supply, one of the only other incontinence underwear manufacturers that directly sells its own products, offers a similarly flexible subscription.
What dings Because Market’s score for a point, though, is the potentially confusing implementation of its dashboard. If you don’t have an account, buying items as a guest is as simple as shopping online anywhere else — you add items to your cart and checkout — but things can get tricky if you do have an account.
When you create a Because Market account, you can modify your purchases and upcoming shipments through your dashboard — and only through the dashboard. This includes new one-time purchases (not just subscriptions). If you want to buy a new product, you need to add it to your upcoming shipment in your dashboard. While the button on product pages might still say “add to cart” after you make an account, there is no more traditional cart option available to you; it’d be more accurate for it to say “add to dashboard,” as that’s where the product will go.
The company also uses aggressive tactics if you try to cancel a recurring delivery. If you attempt to do this, the Because Market website will try to convince you to keep it through offers and warnings that make it sound like your account will be lost, but this isn’t the case. Cancel whatever you want to, and the site will retain your account information. You can always access your account dashboard at a later date if and when you’re ready to make future purchases or set up another subscription.
Insider Tip: If you have an account with Because Market, it's important to note that if you add products to your cart before signing in and decide to sign in later during the checkout process, all the items you selected will be cleared out as if you never added them. This can be incredibly frustrating, so we highly recommend ensuring that you're signed in before attempting to make any purchases on the website.
When it comes to incontinence options, Because Market has all the basics covered. It offers daytime and overnight pull-ups for men and women, tabbed briefs, pads, absorbency boosters, guards, and bed protectors ranging from small to 2XL (where applicable). All in all, Because Market sells ten distinct incontinence products, including three different absorbencies of women’s pads. This selection isn’t extensive, but it should be enough to provide what the average shopper needs.
If you’re looking for more specialized incontinence products, Tranquility offers over 25 different incontinence items, including swimwear, in extended sizing (youth and XS through 5XL).
In the U.S. alone, disposable diapers and incontinence products add up to almost four million tons of waste per year, and it can take up to 500 years for single-use diapers to fully decompose.4 With statistics like this, you might be wondering what the most eco-friendly incontinence solution is. The jury is still out on the ideal answer to that question, as researchers are continuing to evaluate potential solutions that both protect the environment and keep those suffering from incontinence adequately protected.
Until a definitive answer is reached, one of the best alternatives is to examine how incontinence brands handle sustainability. Because Market has an entire page on its website dedicated to the company’s sustainability efforts. From producing products in a carbon-neutral facility and using green technology to acquiring PEFC certification, Because Market is one of the more eco-friendly incontinence brands we’ve come across.
If you’d prefer to avoid disposable products altogether, you might consider some washable incontinence product brands such as Wearever or Confitex.
Launched in 2017 by founders Alexi Suvacioglu and Luca Gualco, Because Market is an online marketplace featuring personal care products with a focus on its line of incontinence underwear, pads, and guards. It features a subscription membership for most of its products, so you don’t have to worry about running out of something you regularly need, whether it’s skin cream, supplements, or incontinence protection.
Many people struggle with embarrassment when purchasing incontinence products, whether it's for themselves, a loved one, or someone they care for. A survey conducted by OnePoll on behalf of Depend found that incontinence products were one of the top three things Americans are most embarrassed to buy in stores, tied with period products and coming in second to condoms. Because Market virtually eliminates this worry because its products arrive in discreet packaging right to your door.
Because Market’s primary focus is incontinence products, but it also offers a collection of other health and personal care items, such as creams, vitamins, and even mobility aids. The company’s line of products is organized into six categories:
Below, we’ll delve further into what Because Market sells, along with additional details on pricing and sizing (if applicable).
Because Market’s bladder protection category is broken up into smaller subcategories:
You can also shop by gender or absorbency. Our hands-on liquid volume stress tests found that Because Market’s incontinence items provided a bit more absorbency than the company’s maximum recommended limits — which is more than ideal for these types of products. Testers (men and women ranging in age from their 20s to their 50s) who tried them on felt secure in the fact that the products wouldn’t leak, and they also appreciated the products’ silence and virtual invisibility under clothes.
Many factors can lead to the need for incontinence protection, from typical aging and childbirth to surgeries, menopause, and more. Whether you struggle with leakage overnight or during the day, these products can help you stay clean, dry, and comfortable.
As with many other brands, like Poise and Tena, Because Market’s incontinence products are all FSA/HSA-eligible. The company’s incontinence offerings consist of male and female incontinence underwear, unisex tabbed briefs, women’s pads, men’s guards, boosters, and bed protectors. These products come in several sizes and absorbency levels, fitting the unique needs of many users — from active individuals to those with mobility issues. Additionally, while Because Market labels the category for these products as “bladder protection,” the pull-ups and tabbed briefs can also be used by those with bowel incontinence (pads and guards don’t offer the necessary coverage in this case).
Because Market specializes in incontinence underwear for women and men; these products are hypoallergenic and skin-friendly due to being latex-free, scent-free, and made with breathable material. They come in sizes small to 2XL and range in absorbency from 4-6 cups. Our testers found Because Market’s underwear products to fit securely and comfortably while remaining silent and nearly invisible under clothing. The Premium Maximum pull-ups feature tear-away side seams for easy removal.
Because Market’s Premium Tabbed Briefs are unisex and come in sizes small to 2XL, the same range as the pull-up underwear. This product can hold four cups of fluid and features leg gathers to help prevent leaks. The tabs can be undone and refastened, making this product an ideal option for individuals with limited mobility.
Pads and guards are best suited for those with light urinary incontinence. These products are generally cheaper than full incontinence underwear while still helping you stay leak-free and dry. The women’s pads come in moderate (one cup), maximum (two cups), and overnight (three cups) absorbency, while the men’s guards come in maximum (two cups) absorbency only. The Premium Boosters are a unisex option that can add an additional four cups of absorption to your incontinence underwear. Additionally, Because Market’s bed protectors are “maximum absorbency” and come in two sizes: 23in x 36in and 30in x 36in.
Because Market’s incontinence products are reasonably priced, though a bit more expensive than more widely-known brands, like Depend. For instance, a 76-pack of medium women’s Depend underwear is about $50, while a one-time purchase of 80 Because Market Premium Maximum women’s underwear in the same size is $64. All of Because Market’s incontinence protection products are FSA/HSA-eligible, and subscribing can save you 10% on each order.
Buyers should note that pricing varies with size. For example, Premium Maximum Plus Underwear for Women cost $0.72 per piece in small/medium, but the same product is $1.05 per piece in 2XL. You can see the prices for incontinence protection products below (all items are priced for one-time purchases in size small/medium).
|Total cost and cost per piece||Max absorbency||Size range|
|Because Market Premium Maximum Plus Underwear for Men (60 ct)||$48.00 ($0.80 per piece)||4 cups (946mL)||S-2XL (28 - 80in)|
|Because Market Premium Guards (60 ct)||$26.01 ($0.43 per piece)||2+ cups (473mL+)||One size; 11.5in long|
|Because Market Maximum Tabbed Briefs (64 ct)||$52.80 ($0.83 per piece)||4 cups (946mL)||S-2XL (22 - 69in)|
|Because Market Premium Overnight Plus Underwear for Men (60 ct)||$57.99 ($0.97 per piece)||6 cups (1420mL)||S-2XL (28 - 80in)|
|Because Market Premium Maximum Plus Underwear for Women (60 ct)||$48.00 ($0.80 per piece)||4 cups (946mL)||S - 2XL (28 - 80in)|
|Because Market Premium Pads - Moderate, Maximum, and Overnight (60 ct)||$18.00 - $32.01 ($0.30 - $0.53 per piece)||1 - 3 cups (237 - 710mL)||11in, 12in, and 14in long|
|Because Booster Pads (20 ct)||$10.00 ($0.50 per piece)||4 cups (946mL)||One size|
|Because Disposable Bed Protectors (20 ct)||$19.98 - $26.64 ($1.00 - $1.33 per piece)||“Maximum absorbency”||23in x 36in; and 30in x 36in|
The items in these subcategories are intended to help those with incontinence remain fresh, clean, and comfortable. Proper skincare is particularly important if you suffer from incontinence, as all types can lead to inflammation, pain, itching, infections, and more.5 There’s even a specific type of chronic skin irritation — incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) — caused by the physical and chemical irritants that often come with incontinence.5 6 Because of this, several incontinence brands, like Because Market and Tena, offer their own line of cleansers, protective creams, and moisturizers.
Because Market produces pH-balanced flushable wipes and paraben-free skin care products — including barrier skin cream, feminine wash, cleansing spray, and soothing skin cream. These are designed to help alleviate rashes and skin irritation for users of incontinence protection products. Prices for these products range from $2.47 for a single pack of wipes to $29.69 for the Ultimate Skincare Package, a bundle that includes soothing skin cream, cleansing spray, and barrier skin cream.
Because Market offers biodegradable scented disposal bags, odor-removing spray, two sizes of adult diaper disposal systems (seven and 11 gallons), and packs of respective liners for those systems. Prices in this category range from $5.84 for a 20-count pack of biodegradable disposal bags to $66.99 for the 11-gallon disposal system.
Because Market’s UTI products are geared more towards women, who are about 30 times more likely to get UTIs than men.7 The four products in this category include a UTI health supplement, a probiotic, a foaming feminine wash, and pH-balanced flushable wipes. The feminine wash and wipes can be found in some of the other bladder protection subcategories, so the only products unique to this one are the probiotic and the UTI supplement — which are $26.69 and $22.49, respectively.
Because Market's personal care section houses many of the same items as the bladder protection one (like wipes, cleansing sprays, and skin creams). Below, we detail this category’s unique offerings such as lip balms, grip socks, and more. Additionally, none of the items in the personal care section are FSA/HSA-eligible.
Two skin creams in the personal care section that aren’t found in the bladder protection category are Because Market’s natural relief skin cream with arnica and menthol and a hemp extract cream made with the same ingredients plus CBD (1,000mg). Additionally, the brand offers two lip balms: one made with CBD and peppermint and a separate one infused with vitamin E and CoQ10. The products containing hemp or CBD are more expensive than those without. For instance, the natural relief cream is $23.39, while the one with hemp extract is $39.59.
As with its UTI products, Because Market’s slippers and sandals are made with women in mind. The company doesn’t currently offer its easy-closure slippers or sandals in men’s sizing. The 6-pack of black grip socks, on the other hand, are unisex and one size (purported to cover sizes 5-10 due to the “high-stretch” chenille material). The shoe options are both over $40, and the 6-pack of socks is $27.88. While reviewers generally seem to like the socks, they are quite a bit more expensive than grip socks you can find elsewhere. For example, The Posey Company, a manufacturer of fall-prevention products since 1992, sells similar socks for as little as $2.72 per pair, depending on the color (this price is for red). Six pairs of these socks would be $16.32, which is a savings of $11.52 over Because Market’s.
The only remaining product in this category is a 12oz spray bottle of “pet & child safe” urine eliminator. Because Market’s description of the spray notes that it’s “free of bleach, chlorine, ammonia, SLS or SLES, alcohol, dyes, paragons, and phthalates.” This cleaner can be used on both soft and hard surfaces and is $11.99.
Because Market offers an array of dietary supplements, ranging from sleep and joint support to omega-3, CBD, and more. The only other incontinence brand we could find in our research that also carries supplements was a brand based in the U.K., Jude — and this brand only offers bladder strength supplements. So, ultimately, supplements are a unique aspect of Because Market’s collection of health and wellness items, which can provide customers with even more convenience and potential savings through a subscription.
In this category, only the joint support and omega-3 supplements are FSA/HSA-eligible. The only repeat items here are Because Market’s probiotic and UTI supplements, which were also in the bladder protection UTI subcategory.
Because Market currently only offers a 60-capsule women’s multivitamin — a one-month supply for $19.99. We hope to see the brand expand more of its products to men, as well, or at least provide more unisex options to satisfy a broader range of needs.
Because Market offers several additional supplements for better sleep, joint health, immunity, omega-3s, probiotics, and bladder control. (For some reason, the bladder control daily supplement isn’t listed under the bladder protection category and can only be found under the supplements one.) There are also bundles if you’re looking to purchase multiple supplements from the brand — the Because Rest Easy Bundle (joint and sleep support), the Because Aging Well Bundle (omega-3, joint support, and immune support), and the Because Women’s Essential Bundle (UTI health and women’s multivitamin).
The bundle options can actually save you a decent amount of money versus buying individual supplements. For example, the Because Aging Well Bundle costs $29.69 but would be $49.74 if you purchased the three items separately.
The final few products in this category are a pill organizer, ten hemp extract gummies (20mg each), hemp extract drops (1,000mg total; 33mg per serving), and the Because Hemp Extract Sampler, which contains the drops, gummies, and CBD relief cream. We appreciate that Because Market provides transparency on its CBD products by linking to each item’s Certificate of Analysis on the respective product pages. You can find the one for the drops here and the one for the gummies here. Additionally, as to be expected, the CBD products are pricier than other items from Because Market. The drops are $71.99, the gummies are $22.49, and the sampler is $123.74.
Additionally, it’s important to note that the CBD products utilize full-spectrum CBD, which contains trace amounts of THC. It’s most likely not enough to have a noticeable impact, but it’s still there. This isn’t anything to be concerned about, though, as full-spectrum CBD can offer different benefits than CBD isolate and broad-spectrum CBD. For example, one study found that a combination of THC and CBD can potentially target pain from neuropathy and chronic illness,9 while researchers in a separate study observed that full-spectrum CBD improved the anxiety (79.2%) and sleep scores (66.7%) of adult patients.10
Because Market offers several products for mobility assistance, like rollator walkers, canes, raised toilet seats, and bath benches — all of which are FSA/HSA-eligible. The other items in this category, like compression gloves and a manual lifting cushion, are not eligible for FSA/HSA reimbursement.
Because Market’s walker and cane prices are comparable to what you might find on Amazon or in big box stores. The folding rollator walkers range from $74.99 to $249.99, while the adjustable quad cane is $29.99. The bath benches, with and without backs, are $90 and $60, respectively, while the raised toilet seat is $55.
For the items that aren’t eligible for FSA/HSA reimbursement, they run the gamut from $29.99 to $119.99 and include:
Because Market has partnered with imaware labs to offer six different at-home testing kits, all of which are FSA/HSA-eligible. The tests all require collecting a blood sample via finger prick, mailing your sample using the included prepaid label (on the same day as sample collection), and getting results via the imaware online portal within seven days. The available tests, the biomarkers they examine, and how much they cost are detailed in the chart below.
|Women’s Health & Wellness Test||hs-CRP, total cholesterol, ferritin, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)||$149.00|
|Heart Health Testing||hs-CRP, total cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c||$79.00|
|Vitamin D Monitoring||25-hydroxy vitamin D||$69.00|
|Prediabetes or Diabetes Screening||Estimated average glucose (EAG), glucose, HbA1c||$69.00|
|Thyroid Screening||Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)||$69.00|
|Prostate Cancer Screening||PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen)||$69.00|
While it’s nice for Because Market to offer these tests, we do wish there was a men’s health and wellness test available, too, especially since there’s already one for prostate cancer. We hope to see the company expand its offerings for men in multiple categories.
Because Market’s test prices are fairly inexpensive compared to other at-home testing brands, such as Everlywell. The tradeoff, though, is that Because Market checks fewer biomarkers than Everlywell. For example, while Because Market’s thyroid test costs $69 and Everlywell’s is $149, the former only checks your TSH, while the latter looks at TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, free T3, and free T4 — all of which paint a more comprehensive picture of your thyroid health.8
Because Market’s bundles make up the final product section on its website. Some of the options in this category can be found sprinkled throughout other sections, but we appreciate the brand offering a way for customers to find them all in one place.
Purchasing one of the bundles generally means saving at least a bit in comparison to getting the items separately, and Because Market offers subscriptions on its bundles as well. If one of the bundles has everything you need, you could end up saving quite a bit by subscribing and getting the additional 10% off. Unfortunately, though, none of the bundles are eligible for FSA/HSA reimbursement.
The chart below details each bundle, what’s included in them, the one-time purchase price, and the Subscribe & Save price.
|Items included||One-time purchase price||Subscription price (10% off)|
|Essentials Skincare Package||Flushable wipes and barrier skin cream||$16.49||$14.84|
|Complete Protection Bundle||Premium boosters, barrier skin cream, disposable bags||$17.59||$15.83|
|Ultimate Skincare Package||Soothing skin cream, cleansing spray, barrier skin cream||$32.99||$29.69|
|Because Rest Easy Bundle||Sleep support and joint support supplements||$21.99||$19.79|
|Because Aging Well Bundle||Omega-3, immune support, and joint support supplements||$32.99||$26.69|
|Because Women's Essential Bundle||UTI health supplement and women’s multivitamin||$21.99||$19.79|
|Stay Active Pad Bundle||Premium pads for women in maximum absorbency, cleansing spray, and flushable wipes||$15.39||$13.85|
|Daily Trio Pad Bundle||Premium pads for women in maximum absorbency, disposable bags, and flushable wipes||$15.39||$13.85|
|Favorite Pads Bundle||Premium pads for women in maximum and overnight absorbencies, and flushable wipes||$18.69||$16.82|
As with many other products on its website, it seems like Because Market’s bundles are aimed more toward women’s needs. It’d be nice to see an additional bundle or two including men’s guards or even the unisex tabbed briefs.
We believe Because Market is a good option for anyone struggling with incontinence or looking to have their health and wellness products delivered to them quickly, discreetly, and at a decent price. With millions of Americans struggling with incontinence issues, the company’s variety of incontinence protection products can fill the needs of most customers.
Most of the brand’s products are similarly priced to what you’ll find on store shelves. And our hands-on tests resulted in Because Market’s incontinence products earning the highest marks overall in comfort, security, fit, invisibility, and silence. The runner-ups were products from Tranquility and Amazon Basics, but they suffered from some noise and fit concerns.
Additionally, Because Market offers the best subscription plan we’ve found on incontinence products — 10% off all orders. NorthShore Care Supply (another incontinence product manufacturer that sells its own products) only gives you 5% off with its subscription plan, and purchasing from third-party vendors can come with varying savings. Carewell, a third-party distributor, gives you 30% off your first auto-ship, but future auto-ship orders are 5% off on select brands only.
Innerbody uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
National Association for Continence. (n.d.). Urinary incontinence overview. NAFC.
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Gorina, Y., Schappert, S., Bercovitz, A., Elgaddal, N., Kramarow, E., & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Prevalence of Incontinence Among Older Americans. Vital and Health Statistics, 3(36).
Płotka-Wasylka, J., Makoś-Chełstowska, P., Kurowska-Susdorf, A., Treviño, M. J. S., Guzmán, S. Z., Mostafa, H., & Cordella, M. (2022). End-of-life management of single-use baby diapers: Analysis of technical, health and environment aspects. Science of The Total Environment, 836, 155339.
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Banharak, S., Panpanit, L., Subindee, S., Narongsanoi, P., Sanun-Aur, P., Kulwong, W., Songtin, P., & Khemphimai, W. (2021). Prevention and Care for Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis Among Older Adults: A Systematic Review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 14, 2983–3004.
Office on Women's Health, & the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2021). Urinary tract infections. OASH.
Cleveland Clinic. (2022). Thyroid Hormone. Cleveland Clinic.
Xiong, W., Cui, T., Cheng, K., Yang, F., Chen, S. R., Willenbring, D., Guan, Y., Pan, H. L., Ren, K., Xu, Y., & Zhang, L. (2012). Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 209(6), 1121–1134.
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