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How to Become an Audiologist

What Does an Audiologist Do?

audiologist and ear model

An audiologist is a clinical professional who helps patients to preserve and enhance one of the most fragile and valuable of human senses: hearing. By detecting ear pathology and treating hearing-related disorders, audiologists help patients to succeed in school and work, as well as to get the most out of their daily interactions with others. Thanks to the intervention of audiologists, many patients living with various degrees of hearing loss are able to continue their much-loved activities, from playing music to conversing with grandchildren.

Audiologists are clinical experts in the anatomical structures of the middle and inner ear. These spaces contain numerous essential components, including the cochlea (critical for hearing) and the vestibular system (which aids in balance and spatial orientation). Illness, injury or repeated acoustic stress due to loud noise can damage these delicate organs. When audiologic pathology is suspected, audiologists can perform a variety of diagnostic tests to discover the nature and extent of the damage, in addition to pinpointing the underlying cause. Depending on the problem, they can subsequently conduct a variety of interventions, including (but not limited to):

  • Professional cleaning of the external ear canal
  • Fitting a hearing aid and/or cochlear implant
  • Instructing patients in compensatory strategies such as lip reading or American Sign Language
  • Prescribing physical, occupational or speech therapy
  • Referring patients to physicians or other providers

In addition to diagnosing and treating disorders of the inner and middle ear, audiologists serve an important public health function by conducting hearing screenings at schools, workplaces and community agencies. Audiologists also work to educate teachers, employers and the public on strategies to prevent and detect hearing loss.

Workplace Details

Most audiologists work in health care facilities such as hospitals, physician offices, or independent audiology clinics. Government agencies and corporations may also employ these professionals to oversee activities related to workplace safety and hearing loss prevention. Because ear disorders impact many areas of a patient’s life, audiologists often work alongside other health care professionals (including physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) as part of an interdisciplinary diagnostic and treatment team.

Salary and Job Outlook

State
Average Wage
Texas
$79130
New York
$82300
California
$94760
Florida
$72110
Pennsylvania
$73820

Hover over any state to explore local income and job growth data.

Created with Raphaël 2.1.0 AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY

ALABAMA

Median Salary: 
$64,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $33,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $90,500

2014-2024 Job Growth: 23%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Birmingham$33,950$68,800$88,680

ALASKA

Salary Data Not Available

2014-2024 Job Growth: 15%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

ARIZONA

Median Salary: 
$71,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $54,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $94,100

2014-2024 Job Growth: 32%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Phoenix$53,570$70,860$90,730
Tuscon$63,220$72,730$90,130

ARKANSAS

Median Salary: 
$61,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $78,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 26%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

CALIFORNIA

Median Salary: 
$90,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $65,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $118,800

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Los Angeles$73,410$90,070$115,830
San Francisco Bay$57,800$103,340$125,150
San Diego$66,410$99,390$124,360
Sacramento$60,440$92,190$117,160

COLORADO

Median Salary: 
$88,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $57,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $118,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 39%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Denver$64,620$86,610$122,450

CONNECTICUT

Median Salary: 
$81,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $62,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $100,400

2014-2024 Job Growth: 19%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Hartford$37,850$77,530$98,870

DELAWARE

Median Salary: 
$76,100
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $65,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $93,500

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Wilmington$66,770$81,230$97,010

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Median Salary: 
$93,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $58,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $151,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 15%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Washington DC$63,910$91,270$132,070

FLORIDA

Median Salary: 
$74,400
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $48,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $99,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 32%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Miami$50,860$72,300$97,670
Orlando$43,360$66,980$97,310
Tampa$68,660$87,610$98,450
Jacksonville$56,790$77,430$120,300

GEORGIA

Median Salary: 
$76,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $41,800
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $114,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 31%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Atlanta$41,130$78,020$113,890

HAWAII

Median Salary: 
$92,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,500
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $115,800

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Honolulu$52,510$92,710$115,840

IDAHO

Median Salary: 
$54,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $78,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 30%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Boise$42,830$55,020$78,230

ILLINOIS

Median Salary: 
$74,600
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $38,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $99,100

2014-2024 Job Growth: 12%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Chicago$37,480$75,650$99,790

INDIANA

Median Salary: 
$70,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $50,400
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $101,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 26%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Indianapolis$46,600$70,020$99,350

IOWA

Median Salary: 
$65,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $51,500
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $98,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: 21%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

KANSAS

Median Salary: 
$52,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $40,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $87,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 25%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Kansas City$52,030$64,870$94,380

KENTUCKY

Median Salary: 
$61,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $93,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 39%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Louisville$52,930$59,430$74,840

LOUISIANA

Median Salary: 
$61,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $46,400
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $85,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 21%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Baton Rouge$45,250$59,210$78,060

MAINE

Median Salary: 
$72,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $54,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $123,000

Job Growth Data Not Available

MARYLAND

Median Salary: 
$85,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $43,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $101,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 33%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Frederick$45,100$87,030$101,880

MASSACHUSETTS

Median Salary: 
$75,600
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $50,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $104,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 8%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Boston$66,750$83,080$117,630
Worcester$55,150$67,600$80,460
Springfield$42,510$54,020$89,710

MICHIGAN

Median Salary: 
$70,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $46,800
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $104,000

2014-2024 Job Growth: 17%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Detroit$53,090$69,970$97,760
Grand Rapids$43,630$68,720$85,880

MINNESOTA

Median Salary: 
$74,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $55,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $96,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 17%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Minneapolis - St. Paul$48,050$73,030$95,850

MISSISSIPPI

Median Salary: 
$61,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $44,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $111,600

2014-2024 Job Growth: 25%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

MISSOURI

Median Salary: 
$72,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,400
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $113,400

2014-2024 Job Growth: 20%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
St. Louis$49,490$73,220$117,980
Kansas City$52,030$64,870$94,380

MONTANA

Median Salary: 
$69,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $37,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $98,500

Job Growth Data Not Available

NEBRASKA

Median Salary: 
$63,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $91,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 20%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Omaha$52,660$67,460$91,460

NEVADA

Median Salary: 
$55,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $17,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $119,100

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Las Vegas$16,890$52,280$115,200

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Salary Data Not Available

2014-2024 Job Growth: 30%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

NEW JERSEY

Median Salary: 
$84,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $65,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $122,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 24%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Newark$63,100$85,160$99,020

NEW MEXICO

Median Salary: 
$93,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $65,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $158,500

2014-2024 Job Growth: 27%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Albuquerque$69,260$140,020$161,720

NEW YORK

Median Salary: 
$81,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $58,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $106,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 29%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 50

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
New York City$64,120$89,760$136,180
Buffalo$43,920$61,020$78,270
Rochester$51,370$76,440$112,560
Albany$55,450$81,710$95,750

NORTH CAROLINA

Median Salary: 
$73,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $53,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $118,100

2014-2024 Job Growth: 27%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Charlotte$55,550$79,130$121,460
Raleigh$56,430$69,380$78,530
Greensboro$62,800$75,080$106,650
Winston - Salem$54,160$71,340$100,700

NORTH DAKOTA

Median Salary: 
$78,100
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $60,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $160,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 32%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

OHIO

Median Salary: 
$62,600
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $48,800
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $107,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 23%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Cleveland$50,150$59,360$86,850
Columbus$52,490$64,180$91,880
Cincinnati$52,230$82,920$116,800
Dayton$44,100$56,820$108,890

OKLAHOMA

Median Salary: 
$88,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $70,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $101,100

2014-2024 Job Growth: 29%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Oklahoma City$75,940$91,090$101,440

OREGON

Median Salary: 
$81,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $54,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $101,600

2014-2024 Job Growth: 31%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Portland$63,610$88,730$132,570

PENNSYLVANIA

Median Salary: 
$72,000
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $46,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $98,500

2014-2024 Job Growth: 22%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Philadelphia$65,320$78,230$98,150
Pittsburgh$62,410$76,890$96,640
Allentown$68,750$100,270$118,230

RHODE ISLAND

Salary Data Not Available

2014-2024 Job Growth: 21%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

SOUTH CAROLINA

Median Salary: 
$80,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $30,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $105,000

2014-2024 Job Growth: 32%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

SOUTH DAKOTA

Salary Data Not Available

2014-2024 Job Growth: 21%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

TENNESSEE

Median Salary: 
$66,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $81,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 38%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Nashville$52,410$65,450$90,190
Knoxville$50,530$65,690$76,580
Chattanooga$52,790$65,280$79,660

TEXAS

Median Salary: 
$69,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $31,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $123,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 37%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 50

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Dallas - Ft. Worth$18,780$77,750$125,250
Houston$50,590$69,700$93,410
Austin$42,570$54,760$63,420

UTAH

Median Salary: 
$67,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $49,500
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $93,800

2014-2024 Job Growth: 39%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Salt Lake City$47,000$69,150$93,950

VERMONT

Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

VIRGINIA

Median Salary: 
$72,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $53,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $119,800

2014-2024 Job Growth: 41%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Virginia Beach$55,370$70,990$91,700
Richmond$52,410$61,670$95,650

WASHINGTON

Median Salary: 
$82,000
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $64,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $115,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 37%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Seattle$65,710$81,830$111,020

WEST VIRGINIA

Median Salary: 
$60,100
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $28,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $91,800

2014-2024 Job Growth: 19%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

WISCONSIN

Median Salary: 
$73,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $53,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $103,500

2014-2024 Job Growth: 7%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Milwaukee$28,670$73,550$98,380

WYOMING

Salary Data Not Available

2014-2024 Job Growth: 29%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary for audiologists is $75,980 (or approximately $36.53/hour).

However, earnings vary with both education level and practice setting. One self-reported survey found that the median annual salary for audiologists holding AuD degrees was $70,000 while those with PhDs reported median earnings of approximately $96,097. The highest salaries went to those employed in private industry and hospitals, while those working for schools reported below-average pay. The top 10% of wage earners have a median salary of $113,540.

Between 2014 and 2024, employment of audiologists is expected to grow by 29%, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This is much faster than the overall average for all occupations. However, because the field is quite small, this increase will amount to only 3,800 new positions spread throughout the United States.

Compare Salaries by City

New York City NY Median Pay

$89760 Per Year

$43.15 Per Hour

Atlanta GA Median Pay

$78020 Per Year

$37.50 Per Hour

Steps to Become an Audiologist

1

Earn a bachelor's degree.

For those interested in pursuing the field of audiology, the first step is to obtain a bachelor’s degree. While no specific undergraduate major is required, essentially all audiology doctoral programs require undergraduate courses in physics, math, anatomy and physiology. Some colleges offer undergraduate “communication science” programs that specifically prepare students for careers in audiology or speech-language pathology.

Show Me Schools »

2

Get accepted into a doctoral program to earn your doctorate.

Prior to the year 2012, audiologists possessing a master’s degree were able to practice independently. However, beginning in 2012, audiologists must now earn a doctoral degree (PhD or AuD) in order to be eligible for national certification.

Formal audiology training begins at the graduate level. When enrolling in a doctoral program, it is important to choose one that is currently accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), as this will ultimately affect licensing and career opportunities. Completion of a doctoral degree in audiology generally requires at least four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor’s level. Given that audiologic PhD programs require a research component, these may last as long as 5-6 years.

3

Complete clinical training (if not completed within the doctoral program).

To become certified by ASHA, audiology candidates must complete a minimum of 1,820 hours of supervised clinical practice during their graduate education. The training provided by accredited doctoral programs generally fulfills this requirement, although additional training beyond the program may be required in some cases.

4

Become licensed as an audiologist.

In the United States, all audiologists must be licensed to practice independently. This will require passing a national exam as well as meeting the required amount of clinical experience.

5

Consider opportunities to take your career in new directions.

Over time, as with many healthcare related fields, licensed audiologists can expect salary increases and other enhancements to their benefits. They have the option of leaving clinical practice to conduct clinical and translational research. Opportunities for consulting with the audiology device industry serve to diversify the career options available to audiologists even further.

Exploring Degree Paths

BACHELOR'S DEGREE

4 years

Your journey to becoming an audiologist starts with earning a bachelor’s degree. No specific major is required, but you’ll need to take certain courses to become certified as an audiologist by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). These include classes in biology, math, physical science, and behavioral science. See ASHA’s “Planning Your Education” page for course recommendations.

Show Me Schools »

One easy way to ensure you get the needed coursework is to major in communication sciences and disorders (CSD). ASHA maintains a list of schools with CSD bachelor’s programs on its website. Some CSD programs have an audiology concentration.

Typical CSD courses include:

Fundamentals of hearing

Study the anatomy of the auditory system and the physical principles that convert vibration to audible sound.

Language development

Learn how humans acquire and use language across the lifespan, plus the implications of abnormal language development.

Intro to language disorders

Gain an understanding of speech delays, language-based learning disabilities, reading disorders, and dementia.

Hearing rehabilitation

Study how lip-reading and auditory training can improve communication in people with hearing impairments.

DOCTORAL DEGREE

3-10 years, depending on the degree

After completing your bachelor’s, you’ll next need to earn a doctorate in order to practice. For this step, you have three options:

  • AuD (3–4 years) focuses on clinical practice
  • PhD (9–10 years) has a research and teaching emphasis, useful if you’re interested in becoming a professor of audiology
  • Dual degree program (about 10 years) earns you both degrees

Audiology doctoral programs are offered by university graduate schools, medical schools, and specialized schools of health sciences. When choosing your program, verify that the institution is accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. ASHA’s Council on Academic Accreditation (CAA) also accredits audiology doctoral programs.

As a doctoral student in audiology, you’ll take courses like:

Measurement of hearing

Learn to give and interpret audiology screenings and operate screening equipment.

Pathology of the auditory system

Gain in-depth knowledge about diseases and conditions that impact the hearing and balance organs.

Amplification

Study the function, selection, fitting, and care of hearing aids.

Vestibular assessment and treatment

Practice diagnosing and treating balance and equilibrium disorders.

Audiology students also undergo extensive supervised clinical training that typically culminates in a yearlong externship. These experiences take place in hospitals, private clinics, neonatal intensive care units, Veteran Affairs medical centers, and schools.

Keys to Success as an Audiologist

Necessary Skills and Qualities

Technological savvy

Comfort with technology will help the audiologist to operate and troubleshoot the many cutting edge technologies and instruments that are used in the field.

Science and analytical skills

Because the auditory and vestibular systems are highly complex structures, audiologists should have strong spatial awareness, analytical skills, and a passion for science.

Good communication

Audiologists must rely on their strong communication and interpersonal skills to establish a rapport with patients, and to explain difficult concepts clearly.

Additional Credentials

Certification of audiologists is voluntary but preferred by many employers. Certified audiologists may have an easier time getting relicensed if they later relocate to a new state.

Two major organizations offer certification in audiology:

ASHA offers a Certificate of Clinical Competence in Audiology (CCC-A) as its entry-level credential. Candidates must graduate from an ASHA-accredited program, meet education and experience requirements, and pass the Praxis Examination in Audiology.

ASHA also offers specialty certification in intraoperative monitoring (BCS-IOM) for CCC-As who work as part of a head-and-neck surgical team.

ABA offers primary and specialty certification in audiology. To become board certified in audiology, candidates must graduate from an audiology doctoral program at a regionally accredited institution, hold a state license, meet experience and supervision requirements, and pass an exam.

ABA also offers several specialty certifications in audiology:

  • Certificate holder – audiology preceptor
  • Pediatric audiology specialty certification
  • Cochlear implant specialty certification
Andrew T. Colucci, MD

Andrew T. Colucci, MD is a senior radiology resident at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA, and a Clinical Instructor at Harvard Medical School. He is a member of the Alpha Omega Alpha medical honor society, and a graduate from Boston University School of Medicine and Boston College. His professional interests are quite varied and include clinical research, medical education, healthcare economics, and health policy.

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