Ankle and Foot

The ankle and foot bones begin at the end of the tibia and fibula, at a synovial hinge joint. The lateral malleolus is joined to the ankle by the anterior talofibular ligaments, and the posterior talofibular ligaments. These ligaments form a prominence on the side of the ankle.

The instep is made up of five, elongated metatarsal bones that join...

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    Full Ankle and Foot Description

    [Continued from above] . . . the tarsus (the seven ankle bones). The distant heads of these bones form the ball of the foot. The tarsals and metatarsals are arranged and bound by ligaments toform the arches of the foot. A tarsometataral ligament joins the tarsus to the metatarsal bone. A longitudinal arch extends from the posterior longitudinal ligament at the heel to the anterior longitudinal ligament of the toe, and a transverse arch (dorsal metatarsal ligament) stretches across the foot. These arches provide a stable, spring base for the body. At times, the tissues that bind the metatarsal become weakened and produce fallen arches or flat feet.

    The plantar ligaments are in the sole of the foot. The plantar calcaneonavicular ligament joins the navicular bone in the ankle to the calcaneus, or heel bone; the plantar cuboideonavicular ligament joins the navicular bone to the cuboid bone of the ankle. The plantar metatarsal ligaments bind the instep across the sole of the foot.