Endocrine Glands of the Lower Torso

In the lower abdomen and pelvis, the endocrine system is closely tied to the digestive system. Several of the digestive organs are also part of the endocrine system; these organs produce hormones which regulate appetite and the release of certain nutrients into the blood. The reproductive glands are also located within this region.

One of the primary glands within the lower abdomen is the adrenal gland. These include the adrenal cortex (along each adrenal gland's perimeter) and the...

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Full Endocrine Glands of the Lower Torso Description

[Continued from above] . . . adrenal medulla (within the center of the adrenal gland). The adrenal cortex is responsible for producing some digestive hormones, including cortisol, and androgens. The adrenal medulla produces the so-called fight or flight hormones.

The primary digestive gland of the lower abdomen is the pancreas, a long, tapered gland which lies across and behind the stomach. This gland secretes digestive juices and bicarbonate, which neutralizes stomach acids.

The digestive organs which also work with the endocrine system are the stomach, the duodenum, and the liver. Each of these organs secretes hormones which are critical to digestion and to efficient absorption of nutrients.

The reproductive glands within the pelvis are the ovaries (in the female) and the testes (in the male). Both of these secrete hormones which are necessary for reproduction. The ovaries produce hormones which regulate the menstrual cycle, stimulate egg production and initiate bodily changes during pregnancy, while the testes secrete testosterone and other hormones which contribute to the development of sperm. During pregnancy, a woman's uterus and the placenta also produce hormones which are necessary to the health and development of the fetus.