You may have heard of probiotics for gut health and digestive problems, but it turns out they are also helpful for various other issues, including weight loss. Although more research needs to be done, specific probiotic strains have shown promise for weight control in clinical studies. But can all probiotics help you lose weight?
We’ve reviewed the research and figured out which probiotic supplements on the market might be the most effective to help you shed pounds. Read on to learn more about how probiotics help with weight management and decide if one of these supplements is right for you.
If you’re pressed for time, take a quick look at our recommendations below.
- Best for most people: Culturelle Digestive Daily Probiotic
- Best budget pick: Megaflora Probiotic
- Best for women: Garden of Life Dr. Formulated Once Daily Women’s Probiotic
- Best for vegans: Ora Organic Trust Your Gut Probiotic & Prebiotic Powder Supplement
- Best broad-spectrum: 1MD Nutrition Complete Probiotics Platinum
- Best powder supplement: Ora Organic Trust Your Gut Probiotic & Prebiotic Powder Supplement
Curturelle’s Digestive Daily Probiotic contains two ingredients clinically proven to help you lose weight.
One capsule a day of Curturelle’s Digestive Daily Probiotic helps to cure digestive issues and boosts immunity. It’s dairy, wheat, and GMO free. Subscribe to their mailing list to save 20% on your purchase.
- Probiotics for weight loss: top considerations
- How our top recommendations compare
- What are probiotics?
- How probiotics work for weight loss
- Are probiotics a good choice for you?
- Are probiotics safe for weight loss?
- Culturelle Digestive Daily Probiotic
- Megaflora Probiotic
- Garden of Life Dr. Formulated Once Daily Women's Probiotic
- Ora Organic Trust Your Gut Probiotic & Prebiotic Powder Supplement
- 1MD Nutrition Complete Probiotics Platinum
- Probiotics for weight loss FAQ
- Why you should trust us
We’ve evaluated our top picks based on five criteria: cost, ingredients, effectiveness, safety, and convenience. This helps us provide a comprehensive look at each product to help you make the best decision.
The cost of a one-month supply of weight loss probiotics varies widely. In our top picks, the cost ranges from $19-$50. When evaluating cost, we consider the price per serving and any opportunities for savings, including shipping, subscriptions, and bulk discounts. Considering these other factors, the lowest price is not always the best value.
Megaflora is our winner in the cost category because they offer an inexpensive supplement (at only $22 for 30 days) with many savings options and an impressive ingredient list. If you opt for a subscription, you’ll save 15% on your entire order, which is covered by a 30-day money-back guarantee. All orders receive free ground shipping. This supplement contains a proprietary blend of 14 probiotics, including three shown in clinical trials to help with weight loss: L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, and B. lactis.
When you take any dietary supplement, including probiotics, it’s essential to know exactly what you’re consuming. Simplicity and transparency are often preferable to complexity and guesswork. We looked at weight loss probiotics that reveal their ingredient lists and contain probiotic strains known for aiding weight loss.
While there are products on this list with more CFU and more strains, our winner in this category is Culturelle because of the product’s simplicity. It contains one strain of probiotics — L. rhamnosus — that has been tested in clinical trials and shown promise in reducing weight.¹ The only other active ingredient is inulin, a potent prebiotic that feeds the probiotic and helps it successfully deliver to the gut. While it isn’t the most jam-packed ingredient list, it is the most straightforward — and we appreciate that.
Winners: Garden of Life and 1MD
It’s important to know that the weight loss probiotic you choose will actually deliver what it promises. This can be hard to gauge, especially when companies make unrealistic claims about their products. The best way to gauge efficacy is to look at the facts: have these ingredients been tested and proven effective? If you can’t locate that information or find conflicting data, the product might not be right for you.
We chose Garden of Life and 1MD for the winners in this category because they both contain ingredients that have been proven effective in clinical trials. Both products contain L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, and B. lactis, which have been shown in trials to speed weight loss.¹ ² Garden of Life also includes two ingredients proven to help women’s health, specifically L. reuteri and L. fermentum. And 1MD includes a blend of prebiotics, which significantly increases the likelihood that the probiotics will reach the intestines safely.
Winner: Ora Organic
In addition to effectiveness claims, supplement companies also make many claims about product safety. It’s important to be on the lookout for true signifiers of safety, including how and where the product was manufactured and whether it is tested for quality and purity. A company truly using safe manufacturing practices will offer this information and include proof to back up their claims.
Ora Organic stands out because of the many steps they take to ensure a safe product. Their products undergo rigorous third-party testing to certify their safety and purity. On the Ora Organic website, you can view the Certificates of Analysis (COA) for all products, including Trust Your Gut. A COA is basically like a report card for a product, showing all of its ingredients, results of any tests performed, information on allergens, and more. If you buy a product from Ora Organics, you can feel confident that it has been manufactured safely.
With dietary supplements, it’s important to take them consistently for best results. If the product has complicated dosing instructions or other conditions that make taking it difficult, you might be less likely to add it to your schedule.
The most convenient product on our list is Culturelle because its ingredients are simple: take one capsule daily with water. That’s all you need to do to reap the benefits of this probiotic. Our other top picks include capsules and one powder supplement, and they all have pretty easy instructions. But Culturelle’s straightforward approach wins out.
|Culturelle||Megaflora||Garden of Life||Ora Organic||1MD|
|Single bottle cost||$19||$22||$34||$35||$50|
|Price per serving||$0.62||$0.73||$1.13||$1.17||$1.67|
|CFU per serving (billion)||10||20||50||20||51|
|Number of probiotic strains||1||14||16||7||11|
|Money-back guarantee||60-day||30-day||30-day||60-day (first bottle only)||90-day|
|Subscribe & save?||
Probiotics are live microorganisms like bacteria and yeasts that you ingest for their health benefits. Most often, people take probiotics to assist with digestive issues because they are said to help balance your gut microbiome. Your body (especially your gut) contains millions of bacteria, and probiotics are “good” bacteria that can help balance the harmful bacteria to enhance your overall wellness.
Specifically, probiotics are taken to improve problems with digestion, including:
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Excessive gas
- Lactose intolerance
Probiotics can also help boost immunity and reverse the signs of aging. They’re also used to treat other common conditions, such as:
- Skin issues
- Mental health concerns
- Urinary and vaginal problems
- Allergies and colds
- High cholesterol or blood pressure
- Oral issues
You find probiotics in supplements as well as in certain fermented foods like yogurt, kombucha, sauerkraut, kimchi, and miso.
While probiotics are said to have many health benefits, more research is needed to determine which strains of probiotics best help certain conditions. There is also the possibility that probiotics can have negative consequences for some people based on health status, so most doctors will encourage you to proceed with caution before trying any new probiotic.
Types of probiotics
Many types of probiotics exist, but the two you’ll see most often are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Each type of probiotic is identified by its genus, species, strain, and (sometimes) strain code. For example, Lactobacillus acidophilus (usually abbreviated L. acidophilus) is a common probiotic you might see in supplements and some foods. Lactobacillus is the genus, while acidophilus is the species. A specific strain is Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, found in foods like milk and yogurt, as well as dietary supplements.
Different probiotic strains have been shown to treat various health issues, while some supplements contain broad-spectrum probiotics intended to address multiple concerns. Here are some other common strains of probiotics you’ll see in supplements:
- Lactobacillus bulgaricus
- Lactobacillus casei
- Bifidobacterium bifidum
- Enterococcus faecium
- Saccharomyces boulardii
You’ll also notice that probiotic products often provide a CFU count. CFU stands for colony forming units and is the number of live bacteria in each supplement serving. They typically range from 1-50 billion, depending on the product and number of strains present.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Lactobacillus gasseri are three strains of probiotics that have been found to help with weight loss. ¹ ² ³ We provide more information about these strains in the next section. Keep in mind that, while preliminary studies have been positive, more research is needed to conclusively determine these weight loss benefits.
Research shows that changes to the gut microbiome could lead to obesity, and lifestyle changes in addition to taking probiotics can impact weight. Balanced gut microbiota help regulate weight by controlling appetite, reducing inflammation, and managing fat storage, among other issues.
While more research needs to be done on the connections between the use of probiotics and weight loss, preliminary research shows some promising results. Some studies show the effectiveness of probiotics (as well as prebiotics and synbiotics) in weight management, while other studies show no change.
Three probiotic strains have been tested for weight loss effects and have shown promise. Keep reading to learn about these probiotics’ studies and potential benefits.
In a 12-week study of 62 obese participants, those taking L. gasseri supplements reduced body weight and hip and waist circumference without making any other dietary or lifestyle changes. The researchers concluded that the difference between the placebo and probiotic groups was not statistically significant, but they observed a slight reduction.³
Another study with 90 participants compared low- and high-dose L. gasseri supplementation with a placebo group. After 12 weeks, the high-dose group had less visceral fat and smaller waist circumferences. The low dose group also had smaller waistlines, while the placebo group showed no change.⁴
In a 24-week study of obese men and women, supplementation with L. rhamnosus showed promising results for reducing weight in women. At both the 12-week and 24-week mark, the women participants showed consistent weight loss as well as a reduction in fat mass. Male participants’ weight management results were not significant.¹
A 12-week study of overweight and mildly obese people showed that B. lactis supplementation significantly reduced abdominal visceral fat at both the 8-week and 12-week mark compared to a placebo group.² Another study showed that daily B. lactis supplementation could combat obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.
Probiotics are a good choice for you if you live with any of the conditions they typically treat. In general, they are safe to take, although little research has been conducted about their long-term effects.
However, if you live with digestive issues, particularly ones that are difficult to treat, probiotics could be a good choice for you. These conditions include:
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Ulcerative colitis
- Crohn’s disease
You may also benefit from taking probiotics if you have recently taken antibiotics, as antibiotics reduce the amount of “good” bacteria in the gut that probiotics restore.
Probiotics may be a good option for weight loss if you’ve had success with probiotics in the past and want to try specific strains that could reduce body fat. Many studies showing probiotics’ effects on weight management involve no other dietary or lifestyle changes.
Who should avoid them
While probiotics are generally safe to take, you may experience some side effects, including:
- Digestive issues (diarrhea, upset stomach, gas, bloating)
- Skin rashes or itchiness
- Allergic reactions
Digestive problems are common when you first start taking a probiotic but usually go away within a few days. Before beginning, read the full ingredient list to ensure you aren’t allergic to any of the supplements’ components.
For some people with chronic health concerns, taking probiotics can worsen symptoms. For example, if you are immunocompromised or have a condition that impacts your immune system, consult your doctor before starting probiotics.
Probiotics are generally safe for most people, with a few exceptions. If you have any of the following conditions, it’s essential to consult a doctor before beginning probiotics:
- Chronic health condition
- An active infection
- HIV or AIDS
- A condition that compromises your immune system
- Recent surgery
It’s crucial to remember that the FDA does not regulate probiotics, so you should pay close attention to the supplement ingredients and the company’s manufacturing practices. You should be able to easily find out which strains of probiotics are included in the supplement formula in addition to other added ingredients. Information about third-party testing and quality control should also be readily available. If the company isn’t transparent about this info, keep looking to find a company that is.
Consult your doctor if you have questions about which probiotic is best for you and before giving probiotics to children under 18. If you have any adverse reactions after beginning a probiotic (other than some mild digestive discomfort for the first few days), discontinue use and talk to your doctor.
Best for most people
- Includes two ingredients clinically linked to weight loss
- Helps with digestive issues and boosts immunity
- Easy dose at one capsule per day
- Does not contain dairy, wheat, or GMOs
- 20% off your first order if you join a mailing list
- No specific clinical trials using this supplement
- Does not offer bulk discounts or subscription option
Culturelle Digestive Daily Probiotic is our top pick because it contains L. rhamnosus, a probiotic strain linked to weight loss.¹ Specifically, Culturelle includes the L. rhamnosus GG strain, shown in a clinical trial to reduce weight in mice fed a high-fat diet. Each capsule contains 10 billion CFU and 200mg of prebiotic inulin derived from chicory root extract. Inulin has also been shown in clinical testing to help with weight loss and blood pressure.
In addition to potentially helping with weight loss, Culturelle also has other health benefits, including;
- Reducing gas, bloating, and diarrhea
- Supporting digestive health
- Boosting immunity
For best results, take one capsule per day. But, if you’re experiencing digestive issues, you can take two capsules daily, one in the morning and one at night. The capsules are vegetarian and do not contain dairy, wheat, eggs, tree nuts, peanuts, or GMOs.
Culturelle states that their product is appropriate for people 12 years old and up, but we recommend consulting your doctor before giving a probiotic supplement to children. The company also cautions against using the product if you are immunocompromised.
A 30-capsule package costs $18.49. This can last 30 days if you use the product as a daily supplement. Culturelle doesn’t offer a subscription service or bulk savings discount. The website does include a Find Now button that directs you to online retailers like Amazon, Target, and iHerb, and you can also enter your zip code for info about in-store locations.
If you order directly from Culturelle, you’ll receive free shipping on orders over $50. They offer a 20% discount on your first purchase if you join their mailing list.
Best budget pick
- Includes all three strains clinically proven to aid weight loss
- Vegan-friendly product
- 30-day supply for only $22
- Free shipping on all orders
- Subscribe and save 15%
- Has to be kept cold
- Uses a proprietary blend — you won’t know how much of each ingredient you ingest
Megaflora Probiotic is our best budget pick because it offers a long list of effective ingredients for a budget-friendly price. You can order a 30-day supply of capsules for only $21.73 with free ground shipping on all orders. Megaflora also offers bulk order discounts and a subscription option that helps you save 15%. The capsules include 20 billion CFU of Megaflora’s 14-strain proprietary blend of probiotics.
That blend includes three probiotic strains that have been shown in clinical trials to aid weight loss:
- L. gasseri³ ⁴
- L. rhamnosus¹
- B. lactis² ⁵
In addition, the supplement contains 11 other strains with various health benefits. We’ve highlighted a few of them below. Check out the Megaflora website for info on all 14 strains.
This strain helps with digestive conditions but may also help with skin issues, oral health, and UTIs. This clinical trial showed that it was effective in treating chronic constipation.
Megaflora Probiotic is vegan and should be stored in a refrigerator or freezer. Take one capsule daily with food.
Megaflora offers free ground shipping on all orders and a 30-day money-back guarantee. You can make a one-time purchase or opt for a subscription to save 15%. Your subscription can ship every 30-180 days, based on your preference. The chart below breaks down the pricing options.
|One-time purchase, 30-day||$22||$0.72|
|One-time purchase, 60-day||$37||$0.61|
|One-time purchase, 90-day||$47||$0.52|
|Subscribe & save, 30-day||$19||$0.62||15%|
|Subscribe & save, 60-day||$31||$0.52||15%|
|Subscribe & save, 90-day||$40||$0.44||15%|
Best for women
- Includes three strains clinically proven to help with weight loss
- Contains two strains proven to boost women’s health
- Free from gluten, GMOs, dairy, soy
- Two options: swallow capsule or empty its contents into a beverage
- Free shipping on orders over $25
- Use of proprietary blends leads to uncertain strain amounts per serving
- Does not offer bulk savings or subscription options
Garden of Life Dr. Formulated Once Daily Women’s Probiotic is our best for women pick because it contains three strains clinically proven to help with weight loss in addition to other strains shown to help with women’s health issues. This probiotic is made with a 16-strain proprietary blend with 50 billion CFU that supports:
- Vaginal health
Among the 16 strains in this formula are L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, and B. lactis — three probiotics shown in clinical trials to help aid weight loss. The formula also contains L. reuteri and L. fermentum, which boost women’s health. L. reuteri helps with bone loss, specifically in older women,⁶ and L. fermentum can help with vaginal infections due to bacteria or yeast.⁷
The vegetarian capsules do not need to be refrigerated and are free from gluten, GMOs, dairy, and soy. Garden of Life also offers a carbon-neutral product. Take one capsule per day with or without food. You also have the option to empty the capsule’s contents into water or juice before drinking.
Garden of Life costs $34.39 for a 30-day supply with free shipping on orders over $25. The company does not offer bulk savings discounts or subscription options but does provide a 30-day money-back guarantee. If you don’t want to order online, click the Find in Store button and enter your zip code to find local retailers.
Best for vegans and best powder supplement
- Vegan-friendly formula without dairy, gluten, or GMOs
- 20 billion CFU per serving
- Includes B. lactis — a probiotic shown to help with weight loss
- Comes in two drinkable powder flavor options
- Thorough third-party testing
- Free shipping on one-time orders over $100
- Only first bottle of product covered by 60-day money-back guarantee
- Limited international shipping locations
Ora Organic Trust Your Gut Probiotic & Prebiotic Powder Supplement is our best choice for vegans because it’s made with organic and dairy-free prebiotics and probiotics. It’s also free from gluten, GMOs, soy, and added sugars. It’s the only powder-based supplement that made our top picks, and it’s available in two delicious flavors: apple raspberry and lavender lemonade. You can mix it into water, a smoothie, or some oatmeal.
Trust Your Gut contains 20 billion CFU of probiotics and prebiotics, including B. lactis, a probiotic strain shown to help with weight loss.² The supplement can also assist with:
- Constipation and bloating
- Overall digestive health
- Mood issues
In addition to B. lactis, this supplement contains six other probiotics strains, including:
It also includes prebiotics, which is a type of fiber that helps feed probiotic strains in the gut, making the supplement even more effective. Ora Organic uses third-party testing to ensure their product’s purity and efficacy. You can download a Certificate of Analysis for the supplement that verifies its ingredients and shows any test results.
To take, mix one scoop of powder into a beverage or food at the same time each day. If you combine the supplement with a liquid, you should drink it with a meal. Those with digestive issues should start with a half scoop for the first two weeks to track their body’s reaction to the supplement.
A one-time purchase of a one-month supply is $35. Or you can subscribe to save 20% on your order with deliveries every 30-90 days, depending on your preference. A 60-day money-back guarantee covers the first bottle of each product.
Ora Organic ships to the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the UK. Shipping costs are calculated at checkout. For U.S. orders, one-time purchases under $100 ship for $8.95, and subscription orders under $50 ship for $6.95. One-time purchases over $100 and subscription orders over $50 ship for free.
- Helps with a variety of digestive concerns
- Includes 51 billion CFU
- Contains all three strains that help with weight loss
- Manufactured in a GMP-certified facility
- Does not contain gluten, dairy, or GMOs
- Subscribe and save for deep discounts
- 90-day money-back guarantee
- High price tag
- No free shipping on one-time, 30-day supply purchase
1MD Nutrition Complete Probiotics Platinum is our broad-spectrum pick because it contains the three strains clinically proven to help with weight loss in addition to eight other prebiotic and probiotic strains, totaling 51 billion CFU. These diverse ingredients help Platinum assist with various digestion and full-body health issues.
This probiotic can help with:
- Healthy gut balance
- Gas and bloating
- Nutrient absorption
Platinum contains L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, and B. lactis, the three probiotics shown to be effective in weight loss.¹ ⁴ ⁵ It also includes Nutraflora Prebiotic, a blend of prebiotics that helps nourish the good bacteria in the probiotic strains, ensuring they are delivered to your gut. The product also uses delayed-release capsules that help with ingredient delivery.
The capsules do not contain dairy, GMOs, gluten, soy, preservatives, peanuts, wheat, or shellfish. They’re made with a vegetarian capsule and no unnecessary fillers. The product is also manufactured in a GMP-certified facility to ensure safe processing and product quality.
If you’re taking Platinum as a dietary supplement, take one capsule daily on an empty stomach. If you have an upset stomach, consider taking your dose with a meal.
A one-time purchase of a 30-day supply is $49.99, but 1MD offers bulk savings discounts and subscription options. A 90-day money-back guarantee covers your order. Shipping costs $5.95 unless you choose a bulk or subscription option, then shipping is free. See the chart below for a breakdown of pricing.
|Cost||Per capsule||Savings||Free shipping?|
|One-time purchase, 30-day||$50||$1.67|
|One-time purchase, 90-day||$132||$1.47||12%||
|One-time purchase, 180-day||$228||$1.27||24%||
|Subscribe & save, 30-day||$41||$1.37||18%||
|Subscribe & save, 90-day||$108||$1.20||28%||
|Subscribe & save, 180-day||$180||$1||40%||
Does taking probiotics help you lose weight?
Research on the effectiveness of probiotics for weight loss is mixed, but some studies show certain strains have helped people control their weight. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium lactis have been tested in clinical trials and found to help with weight loss.¹ ² ³ More research is needed to show the connection between probiotic supplementation and weight loss.
How long does it take probiotics to work for weight loss?
The amount of time it takes for probiotics to work for weight loss depends on many factors and is difficult to gauge. However, clinical trials performed on various probiotic strains showed results at 12 weeks and 24 weeks.⁴ ¹
Can probiotics cause weight gain?
While some probiotic species are noted for effects on weight loss, these effects may vary by strain. For example, while L. gasseri BNR17 showed weight loss effects in a clinical trial,³ L. gasseri L66-5 promoted weight gain in a different trial. This means it’s important to pay attention to the genus, species, and strain to find a product promoting weight loss.
What are the signs that you need probiotics?
In general, any serious signs of intestinal or digestive distress could be a sign that you need probiotics. These supplements are primarily used to treat issues like:
- Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)
- Crohn’s disease
- Ulcerative colitis
- Irritable bowel syndrome
Although more research needs to be done to demonstrate probiotics’ effectiveness for the following conditions, they have also shown promise in treating:
- Yeast infections
- Urinary tract infections
- Lactose intolerance
- Skin conditions
- Respiratory infections
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We extensively test each health service or product we review. Our content provides you, our readers, with an unbiased exploration of at-home health options, free of marketing jargon or gimmicks. We evaluate products and services based on their adherence to quality and the latest medical evidence and health standards. We ask ourselves two simple questions: Would we buy the product or service ourselves if it weren’t part of our job? Would we recommend it to family and friends?
Additionally, like all health-related content on this website, this review was thoroughly vetted by one or more members of our Medical Review Board for accuracy.
 Sanchez, M., Darimont, C., Drapeau, V., Emady-Azar, S., Lepage, M., Rezzonico, E., Ngom-Bru, C., Berger, B., Philippe, L., Ammon-Zuffrey, C., Leone, P., Chevrier, G., St-Amand, E., Marette, A., Doré, J., & Tremblay, A. (2014). Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. The British journal of nutrition, 111(8), 1507–1519. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24299712/.
 Takahashi, S., Anzawa, D., Takami, K., Ishizuka, A., Mawatari, T., Kamikado, K., Sugimura, H., & Nishijima, T. (2016). Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 on visceral fat accumulation in healthy Japanese adults: A randomized controlled trial. Bioscience of microbiota, food and health, 35(4), 163–171. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107634/.
 Jung, S. P., Lee, K. M., Kang, J. H., Yun, S. I., Park, H. O., Moon, Y., & Kim, J. Y. (2013). Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 on overweight and obese adults: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Korean journal of family medicine, 34(2), 80–89. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3611107/.
 Kim, J., Yun, J. M., Kim, M. K., Kwon, O., & Cho, B. (2018). Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 supplementation reduces the visceral fat accumulation and waist circumference in obese adults: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of medicinal food, 21(5), 454–461. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29688793/.
 Do, M. H., Oh, M. J., Lee, H. B., Kang, C. H., Yoo, G., & Park, H. Y. (2022). Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis MG741 reduces body weight and ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via improving the gut permeability and amelioration of inflammatory cytokines. Nutrients, 14(9), 1965. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9104482/.
 Nilsson, A. G., Sundh, D., Bäckhed, F., & Lorentzon, M. (2018). Lactobacillus reuteri reduces bone loss in older women with low bone mineral density: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. Journal of internal medicine, 284(3), 307–317. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29926979/.
 Reid, G., Charbonneau, D., Erb, J., Kochanowski, B., Beuerman, D., Poehner, R., & Bruce, A. W. (2003). Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, 35(2), 131–134. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12628548/.