Guide to Biochemistry Careers

What Does a Biochemist Do?

biochemist with crops

Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes that take place in living organisms. This broad definition of biochemistry means that the job of a biochemist can encompass a wide range of scientific topics, including stem cell research, genetic research, immunology, pharmacology, forensics, cancer research, environmental science and food science. The research efforts of biochemists have the potential to result in dramatic medical or scientific breakthroughs.

A biochemist’s job duties may include examining the body’s immune response to germs and allergens, or determining the effectiveness of drugs in treating a wide array of afflictions. But biochemists enjoy a wide-ranging career path with many possibilities - for instance, other biochemists work in the commercial food or agricultural fields looking for ways to improve products and crops.

The diverse applications of biochemistry means that career options are nearly endless and still unfolding. As technologies and discoveries advance in this exciting field of study, the range and variety of research topics only expands.

Workplace Details

In general, biochemists work in a laboratory or an office, conducting experiments and analyzing results, but research environment varies by the job.

A large portion of research takes place in academic settings, in which the biochemist usually holds a PhD and has started to do independent research after holding a postdoctoral position. An academic environment involves training undergraduate and graduate students and hiring postdoctoral researchers and technicians to conduct the research. Biochemists choose a research topic based on their own interests. Funding usually comes from grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) or other agencies. The schedule is often set by the scientist and varies depending on the person and the research topic.

By contrast, a biochemist working for a biotech or pharmaceutical company often has the opportunity to work in teams on research projects (wherein they report to a supervisor). Or alternately, they are assigned individual tasks in modern, well-equipped laboratories. The work schedule is generally regular (40-hour weeks) with occasional opportunities for overtime when a project deadline is approaching.

In addition, biochemists can opt for a teaching route that does not involve research; they find these positions at the high school or the university level. As teachers, biochemists put in hours outside of the classroom to be well prepared for their students. As with any career in science, a biochemist who wants to stay current on developments in the field will subscribe to a variety of online or print journals and attend conferences and seminars.

There are plenty of job openings for biochemists interested in carrying out applied research for private companies in health and beauty care, chemical manufacturing, food and drink production, medical instruments and pharmaceutical development. Private companies such as these often have positions for biochemists without advanced degrees.

Many biochemical research projects are funded by federal government funds through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the NIH. Biochemists can seek positions within these agencies, but availability of positions depends on the level of federal funding. Other settings in which biochemists can seek employment include hospitals, public health laboratories, cancer research institutes, environmental pollution control and public health offices.

Salary and Job Outlook

State
Average Wage
California
$107760
New Jersey
$117930
Maryland
$84940
New York
$83760
Pennsylvania
$85530

Hover over any state to explore local income and job growth data.

Created with Raphaël 2.1.0 AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY

ALABAMA
Median Salary: 
$84,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $158,900

Job Growth Data Not Available

ALASKA
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

ARIZONA
Median Salary: 
$55,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $37,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $119,000

2014-2024 Job Growth: 24%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

ARKANSAS
Median Salary: 
$63,600
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $136,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 25%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Little Rock$42,560$67,830$141,490

CALIFORNIA
Median Salary: 
$99,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $54,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $185,100

2014-2024 Job Growth: 26%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 290

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Los Angeles$55,710$96,270Over $187,200
San Francisco Bay$67,830$110,490Over $187,200
San Diego$46,540$86,040$154,080
Sacramento$42,630$56,930$124,020

COLORADO
Median Salary: 
$62,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $39,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $133,100

2014-2024 Job Growth: 33%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Denver$43,910$81,270$153,260

CONNECTICUT
Median Salary: 
$111,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $73,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $165,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 10%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

DELAWARE
Median Salary: 
$82,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $49,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $131,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 2%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Wilmington$48,700$84,140$135,070

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Median Salary: 
$55,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $41,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $97,600

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Washington DC$46,570$85,350$148,310

FLORIDA
Median Salary: 
$73,000
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $154,800

2014-2024 Job Growth: 30%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 70

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Miami$42,370$99,850Over $187,200
Tampa$43,300$62,980$99,150

GEORGIA
Median Salary: 
$48,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $34,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $92,400

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Atlanta$35,060$48,650$90,680

HAWAII
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

IDAHO
Median Salary: 
$38,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $32,000
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $90,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 34%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 60

ILLINOIS
Median Salary: 
$84,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $63,800
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $156,000

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Chicago$63,280$73,610$108,690

INDIANA
Median Salary: 
$94,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $64,800
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $146,000

2014-2024 Job Growth: 11%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Indianapolis$66,140$94,770$147,730

IOWA
Median Salary: 
$68,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $43,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $132,600

Job Growth Data Not Available

KANSAS
Median Salary: 
$59,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,400
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $151,800

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Kansas City$43,110$74,650$141,900

KENTUCKY
Median Salary: 
$64,900
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $44,800
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $103,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 16%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

LOUISIANA
Median Salary: 
$44,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $32,300
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $62,500

2014-2024 Job Growth: 6%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

MAINE
Median Salary: 
$64,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $45,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $99,700

2014-2024 Job Growth: 18%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

MARYLAND
Median Salary: 
$78,000
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,500
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $129,600

2014-2024 Job Growth: 27%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 90

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Baltimore$42,840$74,840$123,440
Frederick$44,310$83,630$135,330

MASSACHUSETTS
Median Salary: 
$88,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $46,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $155,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: 7%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 170

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Boston$51,970$97,660$163,590
Worcester$39,420$60,080$169,480

MICHIGAN
Median Salary: 
$72,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $147,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: 11%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Detroit$51,000$70,760$122,620

MINNESOTA
Median Salary: 
$70,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $44,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $109,400

2014-2024 Job Growth: 10%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Minneapolis - St. Paul$43,810$66,520$110,170

MISSISSIPPI
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

MISSOURI
Median Salary: 
$74,400
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $44,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $130,500

2014-2024 Job Growth: 29%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 70

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
St. Louis$44,300$73,920$125,930
Kansas City$43,110$74,650$141,900

MONTANA
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

NEBRASKA
Median Salary: 
$50,600
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $37,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $118,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 17%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Lincoln$41,130$48,740$130,070

NEVADA
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

NEW HAMPSHIRE
Median Salary: 
$70,400
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $44,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $121,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: 17%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

NEW JERSEY
Median Salary: 
$110,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $57,200
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $167,800

2014-2024 Job Growth: 12%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 140

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Newark$64,620$114,330$166,050
Trenton$52,190$119,320Over $187,200

NEW MEXICO
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

NEW YORK
Median Salary: 
$66,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $42,100
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $141,600

2014-2024 Job Growth: 22%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 120

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
New York City$46,570$76,730$155,230
Buffalo$40,880$59,160$111,500
Rochester$46,360$87,470Over $187,200
Albany$41,300$58,950$108,030

NORTH CAROLINA
Median Salary: 
$83,500
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $134,500

2014-2024 Job Growth: 18%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 40

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Raleigh$55,480$80,990$123,280

NORTH DAKOTA
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

OHIO
Median Salary: 
$93,200
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $44,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $186,100

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Cincinnati$51,270$80,570$147,600

OKLAHOMA
Median Salary: 
$43,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $26,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $129,400

Job Growth Data Not Available

OREGON
Median Salary: 
$66,100
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $44,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $155,300

2014-2024 Job Growth: 2%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Portland$43,740$63,890$174,980

PENNSYLVANIA
Median Salary: 
$86,600
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,800
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $138,200

2014-2024 Job Growth: 6%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 60

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Philadelphia$51,020$88,060$138,940
Pittsburgh$57,870$82,280$129,120
Allentown$44,250$72,210$129,540

RHODE ISLAND
Median Salary: 
$52,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $34,500
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $87,300

Job Growth Data Not Available

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Providence$34,530$52,810$87,320

SOUTH CAROLINA
Median Salary: 
$47,300
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $25,900
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $89,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: 16%
Projected Annual Job Openings: Fewer than 10

SOUTH DAKOTA
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

TENNESSEE
Median Salary: 
$55,800
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $33,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $152,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: -6%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 10

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Nashville$33,000$47,140$75,440

TEXAS
Median Salary: 
$70,700
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $43,500
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $152,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: 21%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 40

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Dallas - Ft. Worth$33,660$98,340$182,220
Houston$43,900$59,750$99,470
Austin$49,700$76,710Over $187,200

UTAH
Salary Data Not Available

2014-2024 Job Growth: 40%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 20

VERMONT
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

VIRGINIA
Median Salary: 
$80,000
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $52,600
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $175,900

2014-2024 Job Growth: 16%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Richmond$53,470$71,820$100,470

WASHINGTON
Median Salary: 
$82,400
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $43,700
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $133,800

2014-2024 Job Growth: 17%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Seattle$43,090$82,800$130,780

WEST VIRGINIA
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

WISCONSIN
Median Salary: 
$61,400
Bottom 10% (Entry Level): $37,500
Top 10% (Lots of Experience): $100,000

2014-2024 Job Growth: 22%
Projected Annual Job Openings: 30

SALARY BY METRO AREA:

CityEntry LevelMedianLots of Experience
Milwaukee$49,960$79,790$137,000
Madison$36,700$59,370$95,930

WYOMING
Salary and Job Growth Data Not Available

The average annual salary for biochemists with a PhD is $94,340 according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. For those entering the field with a bachelor’s degree, average wages will be closer to $45,000, though these averages vary by geographic location. Wages for biochemists range from around $45,000 (the median of the bottom 10% of wage earners) to $158,410 (the median of the top 10% of earners). Positions in pharmaceutical manufacturing or scientific research and development generally pay higher salaries than positions at universities and colleges, where the average annual salary is $62,070.

Many industries are scrambling to incorporate biotechnology into their research, development and marketing strategies in order to be more competitive. Likewise, public and private healthcare agencies and pharmaceutical companies are utilizing advances in scientific and technical knowledge in their pursuit of more effective therapies and treatments. Environmental safety is also a growing public and private concern. This is all good news for biochemists.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that between 2014 and 2024 there will be an 8% growth in jobs for biochemists, which is about as fast as the average growth of all occupations. Teaching positions at the college or university level and opportunities to secure the funding to conduct independent, basic scientific research have become increasingly competitive, due to budgetary restraints in a tight economy.

Compare Salaries by City

Boston MA Median Pay

$97660 Per Year

$46.95 Per Hour

Newark NJ Median Pay

$114330 Per Year

$54.96 Per Hour

Steps to Become a Biochemist

1

Starting in high school.

Many biochemists discover their passion for science and begin their academic training in high school by taking advanced placement courses in biology, chemistry, calculus and physics. An aptitude for mathematics and an interest in the biological or chemical sciences are essential for success in biochemistry. Without a passion for these, maintaining a job as a biochemist is difficult.

2

Earn a bachelor's degree.

With an undergraduate bachelor’s degree, a biochemist can qualify for positions such as research assistant, inspector or technical sales representative. Therefore, a bachelor’s degree at minimum is required for entry-level positions.

Show Me Schools »

3

Decide whether you want to pursue a master's or doctoral degree.

Biochemists who go on to obtain a master’s degree qualify for most positions in commercial industries, such as food inspection or product development, as well as for jobs in the private sector in marketing, sales or administration. To get accepted into a master’s program, the selection committees are usually looking for students with a strong history of laboratory experience and excellent professor or supervisor recommendations.

A PhD in biochemistry or chemistry is necessary to lead or participate in serious research projects. At this level, candidates declare a sub-specialty and complete original research in order to meet the doctoral-level standards of the academy. Graduate students in a PhD program typically take five to seven years to complete their PhD. This happens under the close supervision of a senior mentor or principal investigator, along with the guidance of a committee of several other senior scientists.

Pursuing a PhD is a serious commitment that requires undivided attention in order to complete the significant workload, which includes both classes and research in the lab. Often, students also have to teach undergraduates at some point during their graduate career, which is both time-consuming and rewarding. PhD students are not allowed to hold any other job while in a PhD program. Thankfully, most programs offer financial aid for those pursuing PhDs, which helps to lessen the financial burden. This includes free tuition and a monthly stipend for living expenses. The amount varies depending on the institution.

Colleges and universities offering biochemistry degrees may obtain curricular and degree approval from the American Chemical Society (ASC) and many employers consider this certification from the ACS a great advantage in prospective hires. There are no state or federal requirements for licensing to work as a pure biochemist, unless the job itself carries a certification requirement.

4

Grow your career.

Biochemistry careers offer many possibilities - basic or applied research, hands-on lab work, teaching or administration in public or private sector industries. There are jobs available for all levels of academic training, and the demand for biochemists continues to grow. Many college graduates begin their careers as lab technicians or assistant researchers to master key skills and gain experience so they can pursue a post-graduate degree. It generally takes a doctorate to lead a research team or to direct a laboratory for private or governmental agencies.

Most biochemists employed by academic institutions are instructors or researchers. In this setting, advancement follows the administrative or management pathways of the institution. If successful, there is opportunity to become a self-employed consultant. Advancement in the private sector largely depends upon successful publication in journals as well as becoming established as an expert in a sub-specialty.

Exploring Degree Paths

BACHELOR'S DEGREE

4 years

The first step to becoming a biochemist is to earn a bachelor’s degree. This can be in biochemistry or in a closely related discipline like biology or bioengineering.

Holding a bachelor’s degree will qualify you for many entry-level positions in product development, quality control, chemical manufacturing, sales, and research. You’ll also need a bachelor’s degree in order to apply graduate school (master’s and doctoral programs).

Show Me Schools »

Bachelor’s degree programs in biochemistry can be found at many 4-year universities. Some students complete their general education requirements at a 2-year college, and then transfer to a larger college to take their biochemistry core courses.

When choosing an undergraduate biochemistry program, look for one that will allow you to get some hands-on laboratory and research experience. If you plan to go on to graduate school, ask where recent alumni have been accepted. The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) provides voluntary accreditation for biochemistry bachelor’s programs.

Bachelor’s-level biochemistry programs combine general education courses in English and the humanities with major courses in chemistry, physics, and biology. Typical areas of study include:

Biochemistry

A sequence of courses that introduces the chemical properties and behavior of proteins, nucleic acids, fats, and carbohydrates.

Physical chemistry

Examine how matter behaves and reacts at the molecular and atomic levels.

Analytical chemistry

Learn techniques to measure and analyze the composition and structure of matter.

Physics

A class sequence focused on the properties of matter related to heat, electromagnetism, mechanics, and atomic structure.

As an undergraduate biochemistry student, it’s important to gain laboratory and research experience. This will help you land jobs after graduation and will also strengthen your graduate school application.

An increasing number of colleges are incorporating research into their biochemistry bachelor’s programs. You can also find research opportunities in industry, the government, and university laboratories. The American Chemical Society maintains a list of summer research programs and internships on its website.

MASTER'S DEGREE

2 years beyond the bachelor's level

A master’s degree can be a stepping-stone to a doctoral or professional degree (for example, medicine and dentistry). It’s also helpful if you want to perform more complex job tasks as a biochemist or move into a management position.

Most master’s degree programs in biochemistry are located at larger universities. Some things to look for when evaluating a program include:

  • Laboratory and research facilities
  • Research opportunities for master’s-level students
  • Faculty research interests
  • Which employers have hired recent alumni?
  • Where have recent alumni been accepted as Ph.D. candidates?

In order to get into a master’s degree program, you’ll usually need a bachelor’s degree in biochemistry or a closely related science. However, some programs accept candidates with business or law degrees.

Most master’s programs in biochemistry blend coursework with research and scholarly activities. Some subjects you can study at the master’s level:

Biotechnology

Survey the process of developing, producing, and marketing biochemical products and processes, including pharmaceuticals.

Bioinformatics

Understand how complex biological systems like genomic and protein sequences can be analyzed, mapped, and compared.

Cell biology

Learn how cells organize and function at the cellular and molecular levels.

Tumor biology

Study how cancer starts, progresses, and responds to treatments.

Many master’s students also complete a research project or thesis under the direction of an advisor or mentor.

DOCTORAL DEGREE

4-7 years beyond the bachelor's level

You’ll need to earn a doctoral degree (PhD) in order to become a principal research investigator, work on most major research studies, lead product development for industry, or become a professor. Many academic biochemists begin their careers as postdoctoral fellows working alongside mentor scientists at research universities.

PhD programs in biochemistry are generally found at large research universities or within medical schools. You’ll need at least a bachelor’s degree in the field for admission. Many PhD candidates enter their programs with master’s or professional degrees.

Doctoral candidates in biochemistry usually take some coursework early in the program. Some courses are required, but you’ll also have an opportunity to choose topics related to your research. Examples of doctoral level biochemistry courses include:

Developmental genomics

Study the development of the human genome across the lifespan, from embryology to geriatrics.

Cell signaling

Learn how cells “communicate” with other cells by releasing chemical messages into the extracellular space.

Nucleic acid metabolism

Gain an understanding of the interactions between proteins and nucleic acid, plus techniques for studying these reactions.

Gene expression

Covers the mechanisms by which genes alter cell development and differentiation.

After completing your coursework and passing a round of comprehensive exams, you’ll transition to a full-time research phase that lasts 4-6 years. One of the most important milestones of the program is choosing a mentor to supervise your research project.

In order to graduate, you’ll need to write a thesis or dissertation about your research. At some schools, you must also publish your research in a peer-reviewed journal.

In addition, PhD candidates participate in journal clubs, seminars, and professional conferences. You’ll be expected to present your research often through posters and oral presentations.

Keys to Success as a Biochemist

Necessary Skills and Qualities

Technological prowess

Because research in biochemistry relies on computers and medical technologies, an extensive understanding of computer science and software is very helpful, but not necessary. Often these are skills that are attained during the job training.

Lab skills

Attention to detail, the ability to work with a team and good communication skills are all important qualities for a biochemist to be able to thrive and succeed in a lab environment.

Mary Ziegler

Mary Ziegler received her B.A. in Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology from the University of Colorado at Boulder. She attended the University of California Los Angeles for graduate school and received a Ph.D. in Cellular and Molecular Pathology. Mary has over eighteen years of laboratory experience and has published fifteen journal articles. She is currently finishing her postdoctoral work at the University of California Irvine, where she studies tumor angiogenesis.

x